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1. Effects of leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum L. on arsenic-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats.

Sharmila Banu G, Kumar G, Murugesan AG.

Centre for Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Sciences, Kakkaveri, Rasipuram, Namakkal 637408, Tamilnadu, India.

Therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of Ocimum sanctum (200mg/kg, once daily) post arsenic exposure (100ppm in drinking water for 4 months) was investigated in rats. Animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood. On the other hand, a significant decrease in hepatic ALAD, and increase in delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity were noted after arsenic exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increase TBARS level in liver and kidney. Activities of liver, kidney and brain superoxide dismutase and catalase also showed a decrease on arsenic exposure. Administration of O. sanctum post arsenic exposure, exhibited significant recovery in blood ALAD activity while, it restored blood GSH and ROS levels. Other blood biochemical variables remained unchanged on O. sanctum supplementation. Interestingly, there was a marginal, but significant depletion of arsenic from blood, liver and kidneys. The results conclude that post arsenic administration of O. sanctum has significant role in protecting animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress and in the depletion of arsenic concentration. Further studies thus can be recommended for determining the effect of co-administrating of O. sanctum during chelating therapy with a thiol chelator.

PMID: 19111884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Evaluation of larvicidal and nymphicidal potential of plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Aphis gossypii Glover.

Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Abdul Rahuman A, Elango G, Abduz Zahir A, Pandiyan G.

Unit of Bioactive Natural Products, P.G & Research Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol extracts of peel and leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis, Ocimum canum, Ocimum sanctum and Rhinacanthus nasutus were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi, Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and feeding deterrence to nymphs of cotton pest, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae). The larval and nymph mortality were observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal and nymphicidal effects; however, the highest mortality was found in peel chloroform extract of C. sinensis, leaf ethyl acetate extracts of O. canum and O. sanctum and leaf chloroform extract of R. nasutus against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 58.25, 88.15, 21.67 and 40.46 ppm; LC(90) = 298.31, 528.70, 98.34 and 267.20 ppm), peel methanol extract of C. sinensis, leaf methanol extract of O. canum, ethyl acetate extracts of O. sanctum and R. nasutus against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 38.15, 72.40, 109.12 and 39.32 ppm; LC(90) = 184.67, 268.93, 646.62 and 176.39 ppm), peel hexane extract of C. sinensis, leaf methanol extracts of O. canum and R. nasutus and leaf ethyl acetate extract of O. sanctum against the nymph of A. gossypii (LC(50) = 162.89, 80.99, 73.27 and 130.19 ppm; LC(90) = 595.40, 293.33, 338.74 and 450.90 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the peel methanol extracts of C. sinensis and O. canum, ethyl acetate leaf extract of O. sanctum and leaf chloroform and ethyl acetate extract of R. nasutus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus, C. tritaeniorhynchus and A. gossypii.

PMID: 19050919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Chandauli District of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Singh A, Singh PK.

Department of Botany, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi, UttarPradesh 221002, India.

AIM OF THE STUDY: Chandauli district is one of the less studied regions of India for its ethnobotanical values. The present paper synthesizes the first report related to the documentation and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of Chandauli district and their socio-economic relationship with the forests and its resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. RESULTS: The use of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 27 families was documented in the tribal communities of Chandauli district in India. These species were used in combination of some exotic species such as Foeniculum vulgare, Prosopis spicigera, Crataeva nurvala, Curcuma longa, Punica granatum, Aloe vera, Cocos nucifera, Ocimum sanctum and Allium cepa and some medicinal stones, minerals, salts, etc. Most of the plants (94.6%) were reportedly used to treat human diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Documenting the eroding plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area. The principal threatening factors reported were deforestation (90%), agricultural expansion (85%) and overgrazing (53%).

PMID: 19022368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: a Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors.

Bhat M, Zinjarde SS, Bhargava SY, Kumar AR, Joshi BN.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune: 411 007, India. bimba@unipune.ernet.in.

Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II) is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly alpha-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L.) (syn: Sanctum); Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana); Linum usitatissimum (L.) and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant alpha-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

PMID: 18955350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5. Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum sanctum on oxidant-antioxidant status, cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis in a rat forestomach carcinogenesis model.

Manikandan P, Vidjaya Letchoumy P, Prathiba D, Nagini S.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the combinatorial chemopreventive efficacy of Azadirachta indica (AI) and Ocimum sanctum (OS) against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis, based on changes in oxidant-antioxidant status, cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups. Rats in groups 1 and 2 received MNNG (150 mg/kg body weight i.g.) three times with a gap of two weeks in between the treatment. Group 2 rats additionally received ethanolic AI (100 mg/kg body weight i.g.) and OS (150 mg/kg body weight i.g.) leaf extract three times per week for 26 weeks. Group 3 animals were given AI and OS leaf extract alone, whereas group 4 served as the control. RESULTS: Lipid and protein oxidation and status of the antioxidants, superoxide dismutases, catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent enzymes together with markers of proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], glutathione S-transferase-Pi [GST-P]), invasion (cytokeratin [CK]), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) and apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C and caspase-3) were used to biomonitor chemoprevention. Rats administered MNNG developed forestomach carcinomas that displayed low lipid and protein oxidation coupled to enhanced antioxidant activities, and overexpression of PCNA, GST-P, CK, VEGF and Bcl-2 with downregulation of Bax, cytochrome C and caspase-3. Coadministration of AI and OS extract suppressed MNNG-induced gastric carcinomas accompanied by modulation of the oxidant-antioxidant status, inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that chemoprevention by AI and OS combination may be mediated by their antioxidant, antiangiogenic, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties.

PMID: 18946617 [PubMed - in process]

6. In vitro and in vivo studies of the use of some medicinal herbals against the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila in goldfish.

Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C.

Phytotherapy Fish Disease Management Unit, Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620024, Tamil Nadu, India.

Aeromonas hydrophila is a ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogen that produces ulcerative dermatitis under stress conditions and inflicts severe losses on global fisheries and fish culture. This study evaluates the antimicrobial potency of aqueous and ethanolic decoction (individual extract) and concoction (mixed extract) of three common medicinal herbs, turmeric Curcuma longa, Tulsi plant Ocimum sanctum, and neem Azadirachta indica, against the in vitro growth of A. hydrophila. Among the decoctions, A. indica exhibited the most potent antibacterial property (P < 0.05) against A. hydrophila. Among the concoctions, both the aqueous and ethanolic triherbal extracts mixed in the ratio of 1:1:1 had higher antibacterial activity (P < 0.05) than the other concoctions and decoctions. Goldfish Carassius auratus (10 +/- 2 g) were challenged with A. hydrophila intramuscularly in the caudal region with two separate doses (days 1 and 3) of 50 microL/fish (1.8 x 10(3) colony-forming units per milliliter). On days 9 (early) and 15 (late) of infection, fish were held in a net and dip treated for 5 min daily in a 1-L solution of 1% aqueous triherbal concoction. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels of the infected group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. In the early treated group, all of the affected profile values returned to near normal, while the late-treated group registered a partial recovery, such as improved RBC count. The derived hematological values, such as mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, of the early and late-treated groups also significantly declined (P < 0.05) but were restored to near normal (P > 0.05) only in the early treated group. The results suggest that dip treatment of A. hydrophila-infected goldfish in an aqueous triherbal concoction had a synergistic restorative effect on the hematological variables.

Publication Types: PMID: 18942593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Antibacterial activity of some plant extracts used in folk medicine.

Nair R, Kalariya T, Chanda S.

Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.

In the present work, selected plants were screened for their potential antibacterial activity. For evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and organic solvent methanol was used. The plants screened were Ocimum sanctum, Jatropha gossypifolia, Boerhavia diffusa, Azadirachta indica, Solidago virgaurea, and Commelina benghalensis. The antibacterial activity was assessed against six bacterial strains--Pseudomonas testosteroni, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus morganii, Micrococcus flavus. Agar disc diffusion method and Agar ditch diffusion method were used to study the antibacterial activity of all these plants. Ps. testosteroni and K. pneumoniae were the most resistant bacterial strains. A. indica showed strong activity against tested bacterial strains. Therefore, we conclude that A. indica may prove to be a promising agent, and further exploration into this compound should be performed to determine its full therapeutic potential. In addition, its leaf extract can also be used as a lead molecule in combating the diseases caused by the studied bacterial strains.

PMID: 18928141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. Effect of Indian herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant capacity and trace elements content in diabetic rats.

Chandra A, Mahdi AA, Singh RK, Mahdi F, Chander R.

Department of Biochemistry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

In the present investigation we report the protective potential of some herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant status and levels of metal ions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity of the herbs was also evaluated. Induction of diabetes mellitus in rats caused an increase in blood lipid peroxide levels that was associated with the reduced activity of red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant enzymes--namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase--along with depletion of plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) and copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, and selenium levels. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, and Ocimum sanctum extracts (500 mg/kg of body weight) not only lowered the blood glucose level but also inhibited the formation of lipid peroxides, reactivated the antioxidant enzymes, and restored levels of GSH and metals in the above-mentioned model. The herbal extracts (50-500 microg) inhibited the generation of superoxide anions (O(2)(-.)) in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic in vitro systems. These preparations also inhibited the ferrous-sodium ascorbate-induced formation of lipid peroxides in RBCs. The in vivo and in vitro protective effects of the above-mentioned herbal drugs were also compared with that of glibenclamide. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the above-mentioned herbal plants not only possess hypoglycemic properties, but they also decrease oxidative load in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we propose that long-term use of such agents might help in the prevention of diabetes-associated complications. However, the extrapolation of these results to humans needs further in-depth study.

Publication Types: PMID: 18800899 [PubMed - in process]

9. Ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum in sciatic nerve transection-induced neuropathy in rats.

Muthuraman A, Diwan V, Jaggi AS, Singh N, Singh D.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, India.

OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Ocimum sanctum in sciatic nerve transection (axotomy)-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sciatic nerve transection-induced axonal degeneration was assessed histopathologically. Paw pressure, Von Frey Hair, tail cold-hyperalgesia, motor in-coordination tests were performed to assess the extent of neuropathy. Biochemical estimations of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and total calcium levels were also performed. Methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum at different doses (50, 100 and 200mg/kg p.o.) was administered for 10 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. RESULTS: Administration of Ocimum sanctum attenuated sciatic nerve transection-induced axonal degeneration, reduction of nociceptive threshold and motor in-coordination. Moreover, it also attenuated axotomy-induced rise in TBARS, total calcium and decrease in GSH levels in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Anti-oxidant and calcium attenuating actions may be responsible for observed ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum in axotomy-induced neuropathy.

Publication Types: PMID: 18762236 [PubMed - in process]

10. Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

Anees AM.

Vedavalli Vidyalaya, Arcot 632 503, India. hamsabanu@hotmail.com

The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol leaf and flower extracts of Ocimum sanctum were studied against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf extract of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 values of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti were 425.94, 150.40, 350.78, 575.26, and 175.67 and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus were 592.60, 93.92, 212.36, 76.61, and 82.12 ppm, respectively.

PMID: 18704496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of plant lipids containing alpha-linolenic acid.

Singh S, Nair V, Jain S, Gupta YK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. ssmangla@yahoo.com

Two groups of fatty acids are essential to the body, the omega6 (n6) series derived from linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and the omega3 (n3) series derived from alpha-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3). Fatty acids provide energy, are an integral part of the cell membranes and are precursors of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes collectively known as eicosanoids. Eicosanoids participate in development and synthesis of immunological and inflammatory responses. The fixed oils (1, 2, 3 ml/kg) containing alpha-linolenic acid, obtained from the seeds of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum), Soyabean (Glycine max) and Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) were screened for their antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan, leukotriene and arachidonic acid induced paw edema models in rats and the antiinflammatory effects were compared with the standard drug indomethacin. Significant inhibition of paw edema was produced by all the oils in the highest dose (3 ml/kg) in all the models. While O. sanctum oil produced the maximum percentage inhibition in leukotriene induced paw edema, L. usitatissimum oil produced maximum percentage inhibition in carrageenan and arachidonic acid induced paw edema models. The results show that oils with higher alpha-linolenic acid content (L. usitatissimum and O. sanctum) produced a greater inhibition of paw edema suggesting that modulation of the course of inflammatory disorders may be achieved by altering the eicosanoid precursor (i.e. poly unsaturated fatty acids: PUFA) availability through dietary manipulation.

PMID: 18697604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Screening for antifeedant and larvicidal activity of plant extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Sylepta derogata (F.) and Anopheles stephensi (Liston).

Kamaraj C, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A.

Unit of Bioactive Natural Products, P.G. & Research, Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Plant extracts, especially botanical insecticides, are currently studied more and more because of the possibility of their use in plant protection. Biological activity of five solvent plant extracts were studied using fourth instar larvae of gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), cotton leaf roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Antifeedant and larvicidal activity of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol peel, leaf and flower extracts of Citrus sinensis, Ocimum canum, Ocimum sanctum and Rhinacanthus nasutus were used in this study. During preliminary screening, the extracts were tested at 1,000 ppm concentration. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in peel chloroform extract of C. sinensis, flower methanol extract of O. canum against the larvae of H. armigera (LC50 = 65.10,51.78, LC90 = 277.39 and 218.18 ppm), peel methanol extract of C. sinensis, flower ethyl acetate extract of O. canum and leaf acetone extract of O. sanctum against the larvae of S. derogata (LC50 = 20.27,58.21,36.66, LC90 =113.15,285.70 and 668.02 ppm), peel methanol extract of C. sinensis, leaf and flower ethyl acetate extracts of O. canum against the larvae of A. stephensi (LC50 = 95.74,101.53,28.96, LC90 = 303.20,492.43 and 168.05 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the chloroform and methanol extract of C. sinensis, ethyl acetate flower extracts of O. canum and acetone extract of O. sanctum have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the agricultural pests H. armigera, S. derogata and medically important vector A. stephensi.

PMID: 18679716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Improvement in bioavailability of transdermally applied flurbiprofen using tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and turpentine oil.

Charoo NA, Shamsher AA, Kohli K, Pillai K, Rahman Z.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi 110062, India. naseem102@yahoo.com

Penetration enhancing potential of tulsi and turpentine oil on transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, was investigated. The transdermal permeation rate of flurbiprofen across the rat abdominal skin from binary solvent mixture composition of propylene glycol (PG):isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (30:70%, v/v) was 98.88 microg/cm(2)/h, significantly higher than other binary solvent mixtures. The corresponding steady state plasma concentration, 0.71 microg/ml, was much lower than required steady state plasma concentration of 3-5 microg/ml. Hence influence of tulsi and turpentine oil in the optimized binary solvent mixture along with the increased drug load on the flurbiprofen permeation was evaluated. The magnitude of the flux enhancement factor with turpentine oil and tulsi oil was 2.4 and 2.0 respectively at 5% (v/v) concentration beyond which there was no significant increase in the flux. Addition of 2% (w/v) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), as a thickening agent, resulted in desired consistency for the fabrication of patch with insignificant effect on permeation rate of flurbiprofen. The reservoir type of transdermal patch formulation, fabricated by encapsulating the flurbiprofen reservoir solution within a shallow compartment moulded from polyester backing film and microporous ethyl vinyl acetate membrane, did not modulate the skin permeation of flurbiprofen through rat skin in case of turpentine formulations whereas flux of formulations with tulsi oil was significantly altered. The influence of penetration enhancer and solvents on the anatomical structure of the rat skin was studied. Enhancement properties exhibited by turpentine oil and tulsi oil in optimized binary solvent mixture were superior as compared to solvent treated and normal control groups with negligible skin irritation. The fabricated transdermal patches were found to be stable. The bioavailability of flurbiprofen with reference to orally administered flurbiprofen in albino rats was found to increase by 2.97, 3.80 and 5.56 times with transdermal patch formulation without enhancer, tulsi and turpentine oil formulations, respectively. The results were confirmed by pharmacodynamic studies in rat edema inflammation model.

PMID: 18579348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. In vitro activity of eugenol, an active component from Ocimum sanctum, against multiresistant and susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Shokeen P, Bala M, Singh M, Tandon V.

Dr BR Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

In view of the widespread emergence of resistant isolates, an attempt was made to isolate and characterise the component(s) of Ocimum sanctum with activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Bioassay-guided purification of the hexane extract of leaves of O. sanctum was carried out, which yielded H12c as the active compound. H12c was characterised and was determined to be eugenol, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 85-256 mg/L. The antigonorrhoeal efficacy of H12c was better against multiresistant strains. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of H12c was found to be 2g/kg body weight in rats. In view of its efficacy and lower toxicity, eugenol may be a potentially suitable molecule to be developed clinically in response to emerging resistant isolates of N. gonorrhoeae.

Publication Types: PMID: 18565739 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsion formulas against Propionibacterium acnes.

Viyoch J, Pisutthanan N, Faikreua A, Nupangta K, Wangtorpol K, Ngokkuen J.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, 65000 Phitsanulok, Thailand.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsions, on in vitro activity against Propionibacterium acnes. An agar disc diffusion method was employed for screening antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil), Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil) and Ocimum americanum L. (hoary basil) against P. acnes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the basil oils were determined using an agar dilution assay. The obtained results indicated that the MIC values of sweet basil and holy basil oils were 2.0% and 3.0% v/v, respectively, whereas hoary basil oil did not show activity against P. acnes at the highest concentration tested (5.0% v/v). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that methyl chavicol (93.0%) was the major compound in sweet basil oil, and eugenol (41.5%), gamma-caryophyllene (23.7%) and methyl eugenol (11.8%) were major compounds in holy basil oil. Hoary basil oil contained high amounts of geraniol (32.0%) and neral (27.2%) and small amounts of methyl chavicol (0.8%). The Oil-in-water (o/w) micro-emulsions of individual basil oils with concentrations corresponding to their MIC values were formulated. The stable o/w micro-emulsion system for basil oil consisted of 55.0% v/v water phase, 10.0% v/v oil phase (2.0 or 3.0% v/v sweet basil or 3.0% v/v holy basil oil plus 7.0% v/v isopropyl myristate), 29.2% v/v polysorbate 80 and 5.8% v/v 1,2-propylene glycol. Hydroxyethylcellulose at a concentration of 0.5% w/v was used as thickening agent. According to the disc diffusion assay, the formulations containing sweet basil oil exhibited higher activity against P. acnes than those containing holy basil oil, and the thickened formulations tended to give a lower activity against P. acnes than the non-thickened formulations. The prepared micro-emulsions were stable after being tested by a heat-cool cycling method for five cycles. These findings indicate the possibility to use Thai sweet and holy basil oil in suitable formulations for acne skin care.

PMID: 18492147 [PubMed - in process]

16. Antifeedant and larvicidal effects of plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (F.), Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

Kamaraj C, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A.

Department of Zoology, C.Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam, 632 509, India.

A screening for larvicidal activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for pest and vector control. In the backdrop of recent revival of interest in developing plant-based insecticides, the present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal properties in three medicinal plants growing abundantly in the region of Chitheri Hills, Dharmapuri District, India. Antifeedant and larvicidal activity of the acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Ocimum canum, Ocimum sanctum and Rhinacanthus nasutus were studied against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of O. canum, R. nasutus and acetone extract of O. sanctum against the larvae of S. litura (LC(50) = 36.46, 68.08 and 68.84 ppm), against A. aegypti (LC(50) = 99.42, 94.43 and 81.56 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 44.54, 73.40 and 38.30 ppm), respectively. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the agricultural pest, S. litura, and medically important vectors, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus.

PMID: 18437424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes.

Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskadbi S, Paul A Devasagayam T.

Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India.

Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

PMID: 18398493 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2275761

19. Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kamaraj C, Geetha K.

Unit of Bioactive Natural Products, Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, India.

The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Leucas aspera, Morinda tinctoria and Ocimum sanctum were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. aspera led to the separation and identification ofa saponin as a potential mosquito larvicidal compound, with LC50 value of 18.20 and 27.24 ppm against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the saponin from the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. This study investigates the potential of crude extracts from commonly used medical herbs in India as an environmentally safe measure to control the vector of dengue and lymphatic filariasis.

PMID: 18392726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Wound Healing Effects of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn in Rats.

Shetty S, Udupa S, Udupa L.

Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Department of Biochemistry, KMC International Centre and Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576104, India.

In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum), a plant widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of alcoholic and aqueous extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of alcoholic and aqueous extract of O. sanctum. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision, excision and dead space wounds in extract-treated rats and controls. Both the doses of alcoholic and aqueous extract significantly increased wound breaking strength, hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamines, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and significantly decreased percentage of wound contraction and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. The results suggest that O. sanctum has antioxidant properties, which may be responsible and favorable for faster wound healing and this plant extract may be useful in the management of abnormal healing and hypertropic scars.

PMID: 18317555 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2249741

21. Anti-genotoxic effect of Ocimum sanctum L. extract against cyproterone acetate induced genotoxic damage in cultured mammalian cells.

Siddique YH, Ara G, Beg T, Afzal M.

Human Genetics and Toxicology Laboratory, Section of Genetics, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 U.P., India. yasir_hasansiddique@rediffmail.com

The anti-genotoxic effect of Ocimum sanctum L. extract was studied against the genotoxic effect induced by a synthetic progestin cyproterone acetate, on human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, sister chromatid exchanges and replication index as a parameters. About 30 microM of cyproterone acetate was treated with O. sanctum L. infusion, at dosages of 1.075 x 10(-4), 2.125 x 10(-4) and 3.15 x 10(-4) g/ml of culture medium. A clear dose-dependent decrease in the genotoxic damage of cyproterone acetate was observed, suggesting a possible modulating role of the plant infusion. The results of the present study suggest that the plant infusion per se does not have genotoxic potential, but can modulate the genotoxicity of cyproterone acetate on human lymphocytes in vitro.

Publication Types: PMID: 18277466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation.

C Jagetia G.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576 104, India.

Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities.

PMID: 18188408 [PubMed - in process]PMCID: PMC2127223
23. Effect of NR-ANX-C (a polyherbal formulation) on haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice.

Nair V, Arjuman A, Dorababu P, Gopalakrishna HN, Chakradhar Rao U, Mohan L.

Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. vinodnair@hotmail.com

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Use of typical antipsychotics like haloperidol in treatment of schizophrenia is associated with a high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. In rodents, administration of haloperidol leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal formulation containing bioactives of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, triphala and shilajit in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice. METHODS: Five groups (n = 6) of male albino mice were used in the study. Catalepsy was induced by ip administration of haloperidol (1mg/kg). The degree of catalepsy (cataleptic score) was measured as the time the animal maintained an imposed posture. We compared the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) with scopolamine (1 mg/kg). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in brain tissue was also estimated to correlate the levels of oxidative stress and degree of catalepsy in the animal. RESULTS: Significant (P<0.01) reduction in the cataleptic scores was observed in all NR-ANX-C treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in the NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in SOD activity was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in NR-ANX-C (25mg/kg) treated group. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In our study, maximum reduction in cataleptic score was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. The maximum reduction in SOD activity was also observed in the same group. These findings suggest a possible involvement of the antioxidant potential of NRANX- C in alleviating haloperidol induced catalepsy.

PMID: 18160755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24. Content, composition, and bioactivity of the essential oils of three basil genotypes as a function of harvesting.

Zheljazkov VD, Cantrell CL, Tekwani B, Khan SI.

North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, Mississippi 38879, USA. vj40@pss.msstate.edu

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cut on biomass productivity, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of Ocimum basilicum L. (cvs. German and Mesten) and Ocimum sanctum L. (syn. O. tenuiflorum L.) (cv. Local) in Mississippi. Yields of basil herbage and essential oil were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. Essential oil content of O. basilicum cv. German varied from 0.40 to 0.75%, the oil content of cv. Mesten varied from 0.50 to 0.72%, and the oil content of cv. Local (of O. sanctum) ranged from 0.17 to 0.50% in air-dried basil. Herbage and essential oil yields of cvs. German and Mesten of O. basilicum increased with the second and then again with the third cut, whereas herbage and oil yields of cv. Local of O. sanctum increased with the third cut relative to the previous cuts. Overall, essential oil yields were 115, 123, and 51 kg/ha for the cvs. German, Mesten, and Local, respectively. The major oil constituents of cvs. German and Mesten (of O. basilicum) were (-)-linalool (30-40%) and eugenol (8-30%), whereas the major oil constituents of cv. Local (of O. sanctum) were eugenol (8-43%) and methylchavicol (15-27%). Essential oils from both species grown in Mississippi showed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 37.3-49.6 microg/mL), which was comparable to the activity of commercial oil (IC50 = 40-50 microg/mL). Minor basil oil constituents (+)-delta-cadinene, 3-carene, alpha-humulene, citral, and (-)- trans-caryophyllene had antileishmanial activity, whereas other constituents were ineffective. None of the oil was cytotoxic to mammalian cells.

Publication Types: PMID: 18095647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Prevention of insulin resistance by ingesting aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum to fructose-fed rats.

Reddy SS, Karuna R, Baskar R, Saralakumari D.

Department of Biochemistry, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The study was aimed to examine if oral administration of the aqueous extract of the whole plant OCIMUM SANCTUM (OS) protects against the development of insulin resistance in fructose fed rats. Male Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: group-S (starch diet), group-F (fructose diet), group-F+OS (fructose diet along with OCIMUM SANCTUM extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg), group-S+OS (starch diet along with OCIMUM SANCTUM). During the experimental period of 60 days body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured at an interval of 15 days. Insulin sensitivity was assessed at the end of experimental period by measuring glucose-insulin index, which is the product of the areas under the curve of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test. The nontoxic nature of OS was revealed by unaltered body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in group-S+OS when compared with group-S. A significant gain in body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance were observed in group-F when compared with group-S. OS treatment prevented the observed fructose induced alterations in group-F+OS. In conclusion, our results suggests that oral administration of OS aqueous extract could delay the development of insulin resistance in rats and may be used as an adjuvant therapy for treating diabetic patients with insulin resistance.

Publication Types: PMID: 18085503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26. In vitro plant tissue cultures accumulate polyisoprenoid alcohols.

Skorupinska-Tudek K, Pytelewska A, Zelman-Femiak M, Mikoszewski J, Olszowska O, Gajdzis-Kuls D, Urbanska N, Syklowska-Baranek K, Hertel J, Chojnacki T, Swiezewska E.

Department of Lipid Biochemistry, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland. karolina@ibb.waw.pl

In vitro cultivated plant cells and tissues were found to synthesize polyisoprenoids. Taxus baccata suspension cell cultures accumulated polyisoprenoids of the same pattern as the parental tissue; methyl jasmonate or chitosan treatment almost doubled their content. All the root cultures studied accumulated dolichols as predominant polyisoprenoids. Roots of Ocimum sanctum grown in vitro accumulated approx. 2.5-fold higher amount of dolichols than the roots of soil-grown plants. Dolichols dominated over polyprenols in all Triticum sp. tissues studied.

Publication Types: PMID: 18066399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27. Improved shelf life of protein-rich tofu using Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) extracts to benefit Indian rural population.

Anbarasu K, Vijayalakshmi G.

Dept. of Food Microbiology, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570020, India.

A nutrition survey carried out in India revealed that the diets of the rural population are inadequate and deficient in most of the nutrients especially protein. India being the 5th-largest producer of soybean, a protein-rich cereal, can redress protein-energy malnutrition through diversification of soybean uses by developing high-value and health-based food products. Tofu, a nonfermented soybean product rich in high-quality protein, B-vitamins, and isoflavones, could be an excellent substitute for meat in Indian recipes. Tofu being rich in protein has a very short shelf life. Hence an attempt was made to improve the shelf life using extracts of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) commonly available in rural areas. Tofu was prepared traditionally using MgCl(2):CaSO(4) as coagulating agents. Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) was added during the preparation and storage of tofu to prolong its shelf life. Water used in this study was free from microflora, plant extract used contained mesophilic count of 2.527 x 10(4) CFU/g, and no yeasts and molds were detected. Tofu with tulsi extract had 76.4% moisture and was softer than control. Not much difference in mesophilic count was observed between control and treated samples during storage; however, treated tofu was organoleptically good until the end of the study with less lipid-peroxidation and exhibited 50% (4.7 units) less protease activity than control (9.6 units) after 7 d. By using extracts of naturally available, easily cultivable tulsi, the shelf life was successfully extended to 7 to 8 d from 3 to 4 d of normal storage without refrigeration.

PMID: 17995609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28. Studies on rhizosphere microbial diversity of some commercially important medicinal plants.

Karthikeyan B, Jaleel CA, Lakshmanan GM, Deiveekasundaram M.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India. balakar02@yahoo.com

A preliminary study was made on four medicinal plants viz., Ocimum sanctum L., Coleus forskholii Briq, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. and Aloe vera in order to identify and enumerate the rhizosphere, non-rhizosphere and diazotrophic microorganisms in soil. The diazotrophic bacterial population studied includes Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. The rhizosphere bacterial populations were 23.33 x 10(6)g(-1) in O. sanctum followed by C. roseus (20.46 x 10(6)g(-1)), A. vera (18.44 x 10(6)g(-1)) and C. forskholii (16.64 x 10(6)g(-1)). The fungi populations were 19.44 x 10(4)g(-1) in C. roseus, 18.66 x 10(4)g(-1) in O. sanctum, 16.44 x 10(4)g(-1) in A. vera and 14.22 x 10(4)g(-1) in C. forskholii. The actinomycetes population was 12.22 x 10(5)g(-1) in O. sanctum, 10.44 x 10(5)g(-1) in C. roseus, 8.44 x 10(5)g(-1) in A. vera and 6.22 x 10(5)g(-1) in C. forskholii. The diazotrophic bacterial population of Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas is 8.2 x 10(4)g(-1), 12 x 10(4)g(-1), 6 x 10(4)g(-1) in the rhizosphere soil. In all the four medicinal plants the microbial population is more in the rhizosphere soil, when compared to non-rhizosphere soil. These results are helpful in developing a biofertilizer consortium for these commercially grown medicinal plants.

PMID: 17951032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29. Chemical composition and antioxidant property of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) leaves, stems, and inflorescence and their in vitro callus cultures.

Hakkim FL, Shankar CG, Girija S.

Plant Biotechnology Division, Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

In this study, the chemical constituents and antioxidant property of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) field-grown plant parts (leaves, stems, and inflorescence) were compared with those of respective callus cultures induced from each explant in in vitro. The callus cultures were successfully initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) (1 mg/L) combined with different concentrations (0.1-0.5 mg/L) of kinetin as plant growth regulators. The distribution of phenolic compounds in these extracts was analyzed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with reference standards. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid (RA) was found to be the predominant phenolic acid in all callus extracts in comparison with field-grown plant parts. In this study, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated with six different in vitro antioxidant-testing systems. Their activities of scavenging superoxide anion radicals, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, chelating ferrous iron, and ferric ion reducing potential were assessed. The antioxidant activity was increased in all testing systems with increasing amounts of extract. However, at the same concentration, the callus extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity in all of the testing systems than the extract obtained from field-grown plant parts. The data obtained from this study suggested the possibility of the isolation of a high content of RA from in vitro callus cultures rather than field-grown plant organs of holy basil.

Publication Type PMID: 17924700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30. Antistressor activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) against experimentally induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

Jyoti S, Satendra S, Sushma S, Anjana T, Shashi S.

Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India. dr_jyotisethi@rediffmail.com

Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) were evaluated for antistress activity against experimentally induced oxidative stress in albino rabbits. Animals of the test group received supplementation of 2 g fresh leaves of O. sanctum per rabbit for 30 days. Anemic hypoxia was induced chemically by injecting the rabbits with 15 mg sodium nitrite per 100 g body weight intraperitoneally. Results indicated that O. sanctum administration blunted the changes in cardiorespiratory (BP, HR, RR) parameters in response to stress. A significant (p < 0.01) decrease in blood sugar level was observed after 30 days of dietary supplementation of O. sanctum leaves. Significant increase (p < 0.05) in the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase) and nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione) antioxidants was observed in the test group after the treatment with O. sanctum. Oxidative stress led to a lesser depletion of reduced glutathione (28.80%) and plasma superoxide dismutase (23.04%) in O. sanctum-treated rabbits. The results of this study suggest that the potential antistressor activity of O. sanctum is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties.

PMID: 17922070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil) ethanolic leaf extract protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

Manikandan P, Murugan RS, Abbas H, Abraham SK, Nagini S.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ethanolic Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Four different concentrations of ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to Wistar rats by intragastric intubation for five consecutive days followed by intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (35 mg/kg of body weight) 90 minutes after the final dose of the extract. Administration of DMBA increased bone marrow micronuclei, phase I enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl formation. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the activities of phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidants in the liver, erythrocytes, and bone marrow. Pretreatment with ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg of body weight significantly reduced micronuclei formation and phase I enzymes as well as lipid and protein oxidation with enhanced antioxidant and phase II enzyme activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract inhibits DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, reducing the extent of lipid and protein oxidation and up-regulating antioxidant defenses.

PMID: 17887944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32. Study on beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of herbal yogurt.

Chowdhury BR, Chakraborty R, Raychaudhuri U.

Department of Food Technology & Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

Different types of herbal yogurts were developed by mixing standardized milk with pretreated herbs, namely tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum), pudina leaf (Mentha arvensis) and coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum), with leaves separately and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the strains of lactic starter cultures---Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCIM 2903) and Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIM 2083)-followed by incubation at 40 degrees C for 6 h. The beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of the abovementioned herbal yogurts was determined and interestingly noted to exhibit higher enzymatic activity compared with the control yogurt (without any herbs). Among all herbal yogurts, tulsi yogurt had the maximum beta-galactosidase activity.

PMID: 17852503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33. Constituents of Ocimum sanctum with antistress activity.

Gupta P, Yadav DK, Siripurapu KB, Palit G, Maurya R.

Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Three new compounds, ocimumosides A (1) and B (2) and ocimarin (3), were isolated from an extract of the leaves of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), together with eight known substances, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronic acid ( 4), apigenin-7- O-beta- d-glucuronic acid 6''-methyl ester, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronic acid 6''-methyl ester, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 4-allyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyronosyl-2-hydroxybenzene (5), and two known cerebrosides. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The new compounds (1- 3) and the known compounds 4 and 5 were screened at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight for acute stress-induced biochemical changes in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compound 1 displayed promising antistress effects by normalizing hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, plasma creatine kinase, and adrenal hypertrophy. Compounds 2 and 5 were also effective in normalizing most of these stress parameters. In contrast, compounds 3 and 4 were ineffective in normalizing any of these effects.

Publication Types: PMID: 17850106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34. Modulatory effect of distillate of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract (Tulsi) on human lymphocytes against genotoxicants.

Dutta D, Devi SS, Krishnamurthi K, Kumar K, Vyas P, Muthal PL, Naoghare P, Chakrabarti T.

Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur - 440020, India. dipanwita.dd@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE: To study the modulatory effect of distillate of Ocimum sanctum (traditionally known as Tulsi) leaf extract (DTLE) on genotoxicants. METHODS: In the present investigation, we studied the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effect of distillate of Tulsi leaf extract on (i) human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by evaluating the DNA strand break without metabolic activation against mitomycin C (MMC) and hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) and (ii) human peripheral lymphocytes (in vitro) with or without metabolic activation against mitomycin C (MMC), hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) and B[a]P by evaluating chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus assay (MN). Three different doses of DTLE, 50 microL/mL, 100 microL/mL, and 200 microL/mL were selected on the basis of cytotoxicity assay and used for studying DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus emergence. The following positive controls were used for inducing genotoxicity and clastogenicity: MMC (0.29 micromol/L) for DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and 0.51 micromol/L for micronucleus assay; Potassium dichromate (Cr+6) 600 micromol/L for DNA strand break and 5 micromol/L for chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assay; Benzo[a]pyrene (30 micromol/L) for chromosomal aberration and 40 micromol/L for micronucleus assay. The active ingredients present in the distillate of Tulsi leaf extract were identified by HPLC and LC-MS. RESULTS: Mitomycin C (MMC) and hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) induced statistically significant DNA strand break of respectively 69% and 71% (P<0.001) as revealed by fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding. Furthermore, the damage could be protected with DTLE (50 microL/mL, 100 microL/mL, and 200 microL/mL) on simultaneous treatment. Chromosomal aberration and micronucleus formation induced by MMC, Cr+6 and B[a]P were significantly protected (P<0.001) by DTLE with and without metabolic activation. CONCLUSION: Distillate of Tulsi leaf extract possesses antioxidants contributed mainly by eugenol, luteolin and apigenin as identified by LC-MS. These active ingredients may have the protective effect against genotoxicants.

Publication Types: PMID: 17672214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and aflatoxin B1 induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.

Rastogi S, Shukla Y, Paul BN, Chowdhuri DK, Khanna SK, Das M.

Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, P.O. Box 80, Lucknow-226001, India.

A study on the protective effect of alcoholic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA), 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced skin tumorigenesis in a mouse model has been investigated. The study involved pretreatment of mice with the leaf extract prior to either MCA application or tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) treatment in a two-stage tumor protocol viz a viz, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA. The results of the present study indicate that the pretreatment with alcoholic extract of the leaves of O. sanctum decreased the number of tumors in MCA, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treated mice. The skin tumor induced animals pretreated with alcoholic extract led to a decrease in the expression of cutaneous gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutathione-S-transferase-P (GST-P) protein. The histopathological examination of skin tumors treated with leaf extract showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear, mononuclear and lymphocytic cells, decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity with concomitant enhancement of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the serum, implying the in vivo antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity of leaf extract. The decrease in cutaneous phase I enzymes and elevation of phase II enzymes in response to topical application of leaf extract prior to MCA, AFB1, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treatment indicate the possibility of impairment in reactive metabolite(s) formation and thereby reducing skin carcinogenicity. Furthermore, pretreatment of leaf extract in the carcinogen induced animals resulted in elevation of glutathione levels and decrease in lipid peroxidation along with heat shock protein expression, indicating a scavenging or antioxidant potential of the extract during chemical carcinogenesis. Thus it can be concluded that leaf extract of O. sanctum provides protection against chemical carcinogenesis in one or more of the following mechanisms: (i) by acting as an antioxidant; (ii) by modulating phase I and II enzymes; (iii) by exhibiting antiproliferative activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 17669454 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36. Proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis-associated proteins are molecular targets for chemoprevention of MNNG-induced gastric carcinogenesis by ethanolic Ocimum sanctum leaf extract.

Manikandan P, Vidjaya Letchoumy P, Prathiba D, Nagini S.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.

INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic Ocimum sanctum (OS) leaf extract on cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis during N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: The rats were divided into four groups of ten each. Rats in group one were given MNNG (150 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubation three times, with a two-week interval between treatments. Rats in group two were administered MNNG as in group one, and in addition, they received intragastric intubation of ethanolic OS extract (300 mg/kg body weight) three times per week, starting on the day following the first exposure to MNNG. The intubation of ethanolic OS extract continued until the end of the experimental period. Rats in group three were given ethanolic OS leaf extract only. Group four served as controls. All the rats were killed after an experimental period of 26 weeks. RESULTS: Intragastric administration of MNNG-induced well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas that showed increased cell proliferation, and angiogenesis with evasion of apoptosis, as revealed by the upregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi), Bcl-2, cytokeratin (CK) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and with downregulation of Bax, cytochrome C and caspase 3 protein expression. Administration of ethanolic OS leaf extract reduced the incidence of MNNG-induced gastric carcinomas. This was accompanied by decreased expression of PCNA, GST-pi, Bcl-2, CK and VEGF, and overexpression of Bax, cytochrome C, and caspase 3. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that, in MNNG-induced gastric carcinogenesis, the key proteins involved in the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and apoptosis, are viable molecular targets for chemoprevention using ethanolic OS leaf extract.

PMID: 17609827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37. Effects of four Indian medicinal herbs on Isoniazid-, Rifampicin- and Pyrazinamide-induced hepatic injury and immunosuppression in guinea pigs.

Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.

Bapalal Vaidya Botanical Research Centre, Department of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, 110, Nehru Nagar Society, Ichchhanath Road, Surat 395007, India. adhvaryumeghna@hotmail.com

AIM: To evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory effects of Curcuma longa (CL), Ocimum sanctum (OS), Tinospora cordifolia (TC) and Zizyphus mauritiana (ZM) on liver injury and immunosuppression induced by Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF) and Pyrazinamide (PZA). METHODS: Duncan Hartley guinea pigs, weighing 700-1050 g, were treated orally with 50 mg/kg of INH, 100 mg/kg of RIF and 300 mg/kg of PZA for 21-d. 200 mg/kg (bw) of each herb crude extract was administered to the herb control group and 2-h previous to INH+RIF+PZA (AKT) doses to the Herb+AKT groups. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspertate aminotransferase (AST) bilirubin and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) were assessed on d 0 and 21 in all the groups. Phagocytic % (P%), Phagocytic Index (PI) and Chemotactic Index (CI) were also measured as immunologic parameters. Histological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver. RESULTS: The AKT treated control group showed hepatotoxicity as judged by elevated serum AST 5-fold, AST/ALT ratio 4-fold, ALP 2-fold and hepatological changes, such as focal necrosis, portal triaditis and steatosis. Immune function was suppressed as judged by decreased P% (51.67+/-1.68 vs 40.61+/-1.28, P<0.01), PI (2.0725+/-0.05 vs 0.61+/-0.05, P<0.001) and CI (1.8525+/-0.04 vs 0.695+/-0.07, P<0.001). All four herb treated groups showed normal liver histology, enzyme levels and increased P%, while PI and CI were enhanced in the TC and ZM treated groups, respectively. CL+AKT, TC+AKT and ZM+AKT showed nearly normal histology with minimal inflammation and microvesicular steatosis, while OS+AKT showed partial protection. Hepatotoxicity was prevented by restricting the rise of AST by 2-fold in CL+AKT and TC+AKT groups and by 3-fold in OS+AKT and ZM+AKT groups, AST/ALT by 2-fold and ALP to normal levels in all four groups. All four herb+AKT groups showed normal to enhanced neutrophil function. CONCLUSION: All four herbs showed hepatoprotective potential and prevented immunosuppression. CL and TC showed the highest hepatoprotective activity, while TC and ZM showed strong immunostimulatory activity.

Publication Types:PMID: 17589898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38. Biological activities of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil--an overview.

Singh S, Taneja M, Majumdar DK.

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector-III, New Delhi 110 017, India.

Seeds of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae; popularly known as 'Tulsi' in Hindi and 'Holy Basil' in English) contain a pale yellow colored fixed oil. The oil possesses antiinflammatory activity due to dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism supplemented by antihistaminic activity. The antiinflammatory activity is not dependent on the pituitary adrenal axis. The oil possesses antipyretic activity due to prostaglandin inhibition and peripherally acting analgesic activity. The oil has been found to be effective against formaldehyde or adjuvant induced arthritis and turpentine oil induced joint edema in animals. Lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory activities of the oil contribute towards antiulcer activity. The oil can inhibit enhancement of vascular capillary permeability and leucocyte migration following inflammatory stimulus. The LD50 of the oil is 42.5 ml/kg and long-term use of oil at 3 ml/kg dose does not produce any untoward effects in rats. The oil contains a-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, which on metabolism produces eicosapentaenoic acid and the same appears to be responsible for the biological activity. The oil has hypotensive, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory activities. Antioxidant property of the oil renders metabolic inhibition, chemoprevention and hypolipidaemic activity. Presence of linolenic acid in the oil imparts antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The oil alone or in combination with cloxacillin, a beta-lactamase resistant penicillin, has been found to be beneficial in bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disorder resulting from staphylococcal infection. Existence of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities in single entity i.e. fixed oil appears to be unique.

Publication Types: PMID: 17569280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39. Antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of ocimum sanctum in animal models of peptic ulcer.

Kath RK, Gupta RK.

Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha.

In the present study, a hydroalcoholic extract of ocimum sanctum leaves has been investigated for its antioxidant activity in animal models of peptic ulcer with the aim of exploring a possible correlation between its antioxidant and antiulcer activities. Gastric ulcers were produced in rats by ethanol treatment and pyloric ligation whereas duodenal ulcers were produced in guinea pigs by histamine treatment. The animals were divided into six groups of six animals each in all these three models of peptic ulcer. Group I served as diseased control in which distilled water (10 ml/kg) orally was administered as placebo. Group II, III and IV received the test drug (ocimum sanctum leaf extract) in doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/ kg respectively orally once daily for 7 days. Group V was administered ranitidine (10 mg/kg orally) once daily for 7 days and served as standard for comparison. Group VI consisted of healthy control for baseline malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. The antioxidant activity was by evaluated estimating plasma MDA in ethanol treated rats and histamine treated guinea pigs and estimating SOD in pyloric ligated rats and histamine treated guinea pigs. In ethanol treated rats, ocimum sanctum leaf extract (100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the levels of MDA to 2.45 +/- 0.29 nmole/ml and 2.40 +/- 0.14 nmole/ml respectively in comparison to 4.87 +/- 0.06 in the diseased control. Similarly, in the histamine treated guinea pig group, the same doses of the extract significantly lowered the levels of MDA to 2.45 +/- 0.12 nmole/ml and 2.37 +/- 0.16 nmole/ml respectively when compared to 4.66 +/- 0.11 in the diseased control. The extract (100 mg/kg & 200 mg/ kg) also increased the levels of SOD in pyloric ligated rats to 1.78 +/- 0.12 U/ml and 1.89 +/- 0.08 U/ml respectively when compared to 1.29 +/- 0.06 U/ml in the diseased control. In the histamine treated guinea pig group also, the same doses of the extract produced a rise in the SOD levels to 2.10 +/- 0.11 U/ml and 2.20 +/- 0.14 U/ml respectively when compared to 1.32 +/- 0.07 in the diseased control. Since lowered levels of MDA and increased levels of SOD signify antioxidant activity, the antiulcer activity of ocimum sanctum might be due to this mechanism.

PMID: 17402269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40. Oxidative stress in brain and antioxidant activity of Ocimum sanctum in noise exposure.

Samson J, Sheeladevi R, Ravindran R.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India. drjsamson@hotmail.com

Noise is a pervasive aspect of many modern communities, work environments and its damaging effects, particularly the production of free radicals are not limited to the auditory organ. The oxidative stress in three discrete brain regions, in wistar strain male albino rats subjected to three different durations of noise exposures (acute, sub-acute and chronic noise stress) and the in vivo as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity of Ocimum sanctum has been analyzed. Broadband white noise (100dB) exposure significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (EC, catalase (EC, glutathione peroxidase (EC, lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/GSSG ratio. However, administration of ethanolic extract of O. sanctum attenuates the alterations induced by noise exposure. The antioxidant activity of O. sanctum is also evident from its effectiveness in scavenging the free radicals in a dose dependent manner in the herbal antioxidant assays. The results indicate that adaptation to noise does not occur in the brain regions even after 30 days of noise exposure. The abundance of phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavanoids in O. sanctum may be held responsible for its attenuating activity. Therefore, this study indicates that O. sanctum has the potential for further evaluation as an ideal antioxidant for the noise induced oxidative stress.

Publication Types: PMID: 17379314 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41. Quantification of eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid in black (Krishna Tulasi) and green (Sri Tulasi) varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. using high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

Anandjiwala S, Kalola J, Rajani M.

B.V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Centre, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Department, Thaltej, Ahmedabad-380 054, Gujarat, India.

Ocimum sanctum (family Lamiaceae) is a reputed drug of Ayurveda, commonly known as Tulasi. In the present work, we quantified 4 marker compounds, viz., eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, from the leaf of green and black varieties of O. sanctum using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with densitometry. The methods were found to be precise, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intraday analyses in the range of 0.52 to 0.91%, 0.77 to 1.29%, 0.11 to 0.16%, and 0.34 to 0.42% and for interday analyses in the range of 0.73 to 0.96%, 1.02 to 2.08%, 0.11 to 0.12%, and 0.39 to 0.64% for different concentrations of eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, respectively. Instrumental RSD values were 0.24, 0.39, 0.21, and 0.18% for eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, respectively. Accuracy of the methods was checked by conducting a recovery study at 3 different levels for the 4 compounds, and the average recoveries were found to be 99.73, 99.3, 100.58, and 100.57%, respectively. Eugenol content ranged from 0.175 to 0.362% (w/w) and luteolin from 0.019 to 0.046% (w/w) in the samples analyzed. Green variety was found to contain higher amounts of ursolic acid [0.478 and 0.348% (w/w), from Sources 1 and 2, respectively] than the black variety [0.252 and 0.264% (w/w) from Sources 1 and 2, respectively]. Black variety had 0.174 and 0.218% (w/w) of oleanolic acid from Sources 1 and 2, respectively, while it was not detected in the green variety. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid ran at the same Rf value and could not be resolved in several solvent systems tried. However, we observed that only ursolic acid gave yellow fluorescence under 366 nm ultraviolet light after derivatization with anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid reagent. The HPTLC-densitometry methods for the quantification of the 4 markers in O. sanctum leaf will have the applicability in quality control.

Publication Types: PMID: 17225591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42. Biochemical evaluation of antidiabetogenic properties of some commonly used Indian plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats.

Narendhirakannan RT, Subramanian S, Kandaswamy M.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Chennai, India.

1. Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disorder with micro- and macrovascular complications that results in significant morbidity and mortality. 2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypoglycaemic efficacy of commonly used traditional Indian plants, such as Murraya koenigii, Mentha piperitae, Ocimum sanctum and Aegle marmelos, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental rats. 3. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract of these plants resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and urea, with a concomitant increase in glycogen, haemoglobin and protein, in diabetic rats. Treatment with these plant extracts also resulted in an increase in insulin and C-peptide levels and glucose tolerance. 4. The decreased activities of carbohydrate-metabolising enzymes, such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen synthase, in diabetic rats were significantly elevated towards near normal in rats treated with extracts of M. koenigii, O. sanctum and A. marmelos; the increased activities of lactate dehydrogenase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and glycogen phosphorylase in STZ diabetic rats were significantly reduced following treatment with the plant extracts. 5. Elevated specific binding of [(125)I]-labelled insulin to the receptor found in diabetic rats was markedly decreased in extract-treated groups. However, treatment of diabetic rats with M. piperitae did not result in any significant modification in all parameters. 6. Phytochemical screening conducted by us revealed the presence of biologically active ingredients in the ethanolic extracts of M. koenigii, O. sanctum and A. marmelos, which may readily account for the observed hypoglycaemic activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 17184494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43. Wound healing activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn with supportive role of antioxidant enzymes.

Shetty S, Udupa S, Udupa L, Somayaji N.

Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal 576 104. somashekarshetty@yahoo.com

The present study was performed to evaluate the wound healing and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (O. sanctum) in rats. Albino rats of either sex were divided into 2 groups. Group I: Wounded control rats; Group II: Wounded rats administered O. sanctum aqueous extract. Wound breaking strength in incision wound model, epithelization period and percent wound contraction in excision wound model were studied. Using dead space wound model, granulation tissue breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight, hydoxyproline level in dry granulation tissue, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels in wet granulation tissue were estimated in both the groups. Increased wound breaking strength, decreased epithelization period, increased percent wound contraction, increased granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline concentrations were observed. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase level in extract treated group compared to controls. Granulation tissue was subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pattern of lay-down for collagen using Haematoxylin and Eosin stains which confirm the results. Owing to wound healing and antioxidant activities, O. sanctum may be useful in the management of abnormal healing such as keloids and hypertrophic scars.

PMID: 17051736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44. Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of several Indian medicinal plants.

Niture SK, Rao US, Srivenugopal KS.

Center for Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA.

O6-alkylguanines are potent mutagenic, pro-carcinogenic and cytotoxic lesions induced by exogenous and endogenous alkylating agents. A facilitated elimination of these lesions by increasing the activity of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is likely to be a beneficial chemoprevention strategy, which, however, has not been examined. Because, a marginal enhancement of this protein may be adequate for genomic protection, we studied alterations in MGMT activity and expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cancer cell lines induced by water-soluble and alcohol-soluble constituents of several plants with established antioxidant and medicinal properties. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts from neem (Azadirachta indica), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), winter cherry (Withania somnifera), and oregano (Origanum majorana) increased the levels of MGMT protein and its demethylation activity in a time-dependent manner with a maximum of 3-fold increase after 72-h treatment. The extracts from gooseberry (Emblica officinalis), common basil (Ocimum basilicum), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) were relatively less efficient in raising MGMT levels. Increased levels of MGMT mRNA accounted at least, in part, for the increased activity of the DNA repair protein. The herbal treatments also increased glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP1) expression, albeit to a lesser extent than MGMT. These data provide the first evidence for the upregulation of human MGMT by plant constituents and raise the possibility of rational dietary approaches for attenuating alkylation-induced carcinogenesis. Further, they reveal the putative antioxidant responsiveness of the MGMT gene in human cells.

Publication Types: PMID: 17016661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on cardiac changes in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress.

Sood S, Narang D, Thomas MK, Gupta YK, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS; 6 h/day for 21 days) alone or along with either hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Os; 100 mg/kg; orally) or MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist (0.3 mg/kg; i.p.). In the rats subjected to only CRS, plasma cAMP level was significantly raised on day 21, with no significant change in plasma corticosterone level. There was a significant (p < 0.05) fall in myocardial glutathione level, along with a significant (p < 0.05) rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, while light microscopy showed evidence of myocardial edema. Both Os and MK-801 significantly prevented the CRS-induced rise in plasma cAMP level, myocardial SOD and catalase activities as well as the light microscopic changes in the myocardium. This study revealed that Ocimum sanctum protects rat heart from chronic restraint stress induced changes, through its central effect.

PMID: 16965878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum L after high-dose 131iodine exposure in mice: an in vivo study.

Bhartiya US, Raut YS, Joseph LJ.

Laboratory Nuclear Medicine Section, Radiochemistry & Isotope Group, BARC, C/O Tata Memorial Hospital Annexe, Parel, Mumbai, India. umapat@yahoo.com

Radioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (40 mg/kg body weight, for 15 days) in mice exposed to high-doses (3.7 MBq) of oral 131iodine was investigated by studying the organ weights, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense enzymes in various target organs like liver, kidneys, salivary glands and stomach at 24 hr after exposure in adult Swiss mice. The mean weight of the salivary glands showed significant increase after 131iodine administration. 131iodine exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation in kidneys and salivary glands in comparison to control animals. Pretreatment with O. sanctum in radioiodine exposed group showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation in both kidneys and salivary glands. In liver, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels showed significant reduction after radioiodine exposure while pretreatment with O. sanctum exhibited less depletion in GSH level even after 131iodine exposure. However, no such changes were observed in stomach. The results indicate the possibility of using aqueous extract of O. sanctum for ameliorating 131Iodine induced damage to the salivary glands.

PMID: 16924835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47. In vivo studies on the effect of Ocimum sanctum L. leaf extract in modifying the genotoxicity induced by chromium and mercury in Allium root meristems.

Babu K, Uma Maheswari KC.

R & D Centre, Cholayil Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Ambattur, Chennai-600 098, India.

In vivo cytogenetic assay in Allium cepa root tip cells has been carried out to detect the modifying effect of Ocimum sanctum aqueous leaf extract against chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) induced genotoxicity. It was observed that the roots post-treated with the leaf extract showed highly significant (p < 0.001) recovery in mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) when compared to pre-treated (Cr/Hg) samples and the lower doses of the leaf extract were found to be more effective than higher doses. The present study reveals that the Ocimum sanctum leaf extract possesses the protective effect against Cr/Hg induced genetic damage.

PMID: 16850883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48. Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts inhibiting molecular interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA sequences mimicking NF-kappaB binding sites.

Lampronti I, Khan MT, Bianchi N, Ather A, Borgatti M, Vizziello L, Fabbri E, Gambari R.

ER-GenTech, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ferrara University, Via L. Borsari, 46, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.

Several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of extracts derived from different medicinal plants of Bangladesh in interfering with specific DNA-protein interactions. The rationale for this study is based on the observation that alteration of gene transcription represents a very promising approach to control the expression of selected genes and could be obtained using different molecules acting on the interactions between DNA and transcription factors (TFs). We have analysed the antiproliferative activity of extracts from the medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Aphanamixis polystachya, Moringa oleifera, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata and Ocimum sanctum. Antiproliferative activity was assayed on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat and erythroleukemia HEL cell lines. We employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) as a suitable technique for the identification of plant extracts altering the binding between transcription factors and the specific DNA elements. We found that low concentrations of Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Moringa oleifera and Lagerstroemia speciosa, and very low concentrations of Aphanamixis polystachya extracts inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). On the contrary, high amount of extracts from Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata or Ocimum sanctum were unable to inhibit NF-kappaB/DNA interactions. Extracts inhibiting both NF-kappaB binding activity and tumor cell growth might be a source for anti-tumor compounds, while extracts inhibiting NF-kappaB/DNA interactions with lower effects on cell growth, could be of interest in the search of compounds active in inflammatory diseases, for which inhibition of NF-kappaB binding activity without toxic effects should be obtained.

Publication Types: PMID: 16789890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49. Characterization of the volatile pattern and antioxidant capacity of essential oils from different species of the genus Ocimum.

Trevisan MT, Vasconcelos Silva MG, Pfundstein B, Spiegelhalder B, Owen RW.

Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The antioxidant capacity of essential oils obtained by steam hydrodistillation from five species of the genus Ocimum, namely Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum micranthum, and Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum), were evaluated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and the DPPH assays. The yield of oils from the leaves of the five species was variable with the greater amount obtained from Ocimum gratissimum (3.5%) and the least from Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (0.5%). In the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, strong antioxidant capacity was evident in all the oils but the greater was shown by that obtained from Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) (IC50 = 0.46 microL/mL) compared to Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (IC50 = 1.84 microL/mL). Antioxidant capacity was positively correlated (r = 0.92, p < 0.05) with a high proportion of compounds possessing a phenolic ring such as eugenol, while a strong negative correlation (r = -0.77, p > 0.1) with other major volatiles was observed. These correlations were confirmed to a large extent in the DPPH assay. The results of a 24 h experiment with Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) shows that the antioxidant capacity factor (amount of essential oil obtained x free radical scavenging capacity; mg x %/100) reaches a threshold between 10 and 12.00 h, corresponding to maximum sunlight intensity in Brasil and furthermore exhibits a clear diurnal variation. The data generated with Ocimum species indicates that essential oils obtained from various herbs and spices may have an important role to play in cancer chemoprevention, functional foods, and in the preservation of pharmacologic products.

PMID: 16756370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50. Antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) seed oil.

Gupta S, Mediratta PK, Singh S, Sharma KK, Shukla R.

Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Science and GTB Hospital, Shahdara, Delhi, India.

Antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. seed oil (OSSO) was investigated in rabbits. Administration of OSSO (0.8 g/kg body weight/day) for four weeks, in cholesterol (100 mg/kg body weight/day) fed rabbits significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and LDL-+VLDL-cholesterol as compared to untreated cholesterol fed group. There was significant fall in atherogenic index in OSSO treated group. In addition, treatment with OSSO decreased lipid peroxidation and increased reduced glutathione content in blood. Antidiabetic effect of O. sanctum seed oil was evaluated in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Two weeks treatment of diabetic rabbits with OSSO (0.8 gm/kg/day) showed no significant hypoglycaemic effect. Results of the present study show that OSSO has hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects but it does not have antidiabetic effect.

PMID: 16629372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts stimulate insulin secretion from perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic beta-cells.

Hannan JM, Marenah L, Ali L, Rokeya B, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YH.

Diabetes Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland BT52 1SA, UK.

Ocimum sanctum leaves have previously been reported to reduce blood glucose when administered to rats and humans with diabetes. In the present study, the effects of ethanol extract and five partition fractions of O. sanctum leaves were studied on insulin secretion together with an evaluation of their mechanisms of action. The ethanol extract and each of the aqueous, butanol and ethylacetate fractions stimulated insulin secretion from perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islets and a clonal rat beta-cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory effects of ethanol extract and each of these partition fractions were potentiated by glucose, isobutylmethylxanthine, tolbutamide and a depolarizing concentration of KCl. Inhibition of the secretory effect was observed with diazoxide, verapamil and Ca2+ removal. In contrast, the stimulatory effects of the chloroform and hexane partition fractions were associated with decreased cell viability and were unaltered by diazoxide and verapamil. The ethanol extract and the five fractions increased intracellular Ca2+ in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells, being partly attenuated by the addition of verapamil. These findings indicated that constituents of O. sanctum leaf extracts have stimulatory effects on physiological pathways of insulin secretion which may underlie its reported antidiabetic action.

Publication Types: PMID: 16614387 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52. Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury.

Mohanty I, Arya DS, Gupta SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India. ipseetamohanty@yahoo.co.in

BACKGROUND: In the present investigation, the effect of Curcuma longa (Cl) and Ocimum sanctum (Os) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in an ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) model of myocardial injury. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups and orally fed saline once daily (sham, control IR) or Cl (100 mg/kg; Cl-IR) or Os (75 mg/kg; Os-IR) respectively for 1 month. On the 31st day, in the rats of the control IR, Cl-IR and Os-IR groups LAD occlusion was undertaken for 45 min, and reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. The hemodynamic parameters{mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular peak positive (+) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure development) and negative (-) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure decline)} were monitored at pre-set points throughout the experimental duration and subsequently, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistopathological (Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression & TUNEL positivity) and histopathological studies. RESULTS: Chronic treatment with Cl significantly reduced TUNEL positivity (p < 0.05), Bax protein (p < 0.001) and upregulated Bcl-2 (p < 0.001) expression in comparison to control IR group. In addition, Cl demonstrated mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced hemodynamic {(+)LVdP/dt, (-) LVdP/dt & LVEDP} and histopathological perturbations. Chronic Os treatment resulted in modest modulation of the hemodynamic alterations (MAP, LVEDP) but failed to demonstrate any significant antiapoptotic effects and prevent the histopathological alterations as compared to control IR group. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant cardioprotection and functional recovery demonstrated by Cl may be attributed to its anti-apoptotic property. In contrast to Os, Cl may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the impairment of cardiac performance.

PMID: 16504000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1397864

53. Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice.

Joshi H, Parle M.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar, India. amanjoshi17@yahoo.com

Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Certain drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a nootropic and anti-amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O. sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Publication Types: PMID: 16480180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on normal and dexamethasone suppressed wound healing.

Udupa SL, Shetty S, Udupa AL, Somayaji SN.

Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 104, India. s_udupa@yahoo.com

Ethanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum was investigated for normal wound healing and dexamethasone depressed healing using incision, excision and dead space wound models in albino rats. The extract of O. sanctum significantly increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster and the rate of wound contraction was significantly increased as compared to control wounds. Significant increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight, granulation tissue breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wound model was observed. The extract significantly decreased the antihealing activities of dexamethasone in all the wound models. The results indicated that the leaf extract promotes wound healing significantly and able to overcome the wound healing suppressing action of dexamethasone. Histological examination of granulation tissue to determine the pattern of lay-down for collagen confirmed the results.

PMID: 16430091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


55. Biogenic amine changes in brain regions and attenuating action of Ocimum sanctumin noise exposure.

Samson J, Sheela Devi R, Ravindran R, Senthilvelan M.

Department of Physiology, ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India. drjsamson@hotmail.com

Broadband white noise exposure (100 dB) in wistar strain male albino rats significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT turnover in many of the discrete brain regions (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, pons-medulla and corpus striatum) during sub-chronic noise exposure (4 h daily for 15 days). In acute (4 h for 1 day) and chronic noise exposures (4 h daily for 30 days) the levels were significantly altered only in certain regions. The turnover study of serotonin clearly indicates that neurotransmitter level alone cannot be an indicator, as in some brain regions the rate of synthesis matched with the degradation in order to maintain the normal levels. The intraperitoneal administration of 70% ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum(OS) at the dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight to animals subjected to noise exposure has prevented the noise induced increase in neurotransmitter levels without affecting the normal levels. This indicates that OS can be a probable herbal remedy for noise induced biogenic amine alterations.

Publication Types: PMID: 16427690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56. Antioxidant and radioprotective properties of an Ocimum sanctum polysaccharide.

Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S.

Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. schatt@apsara.barc.ernet.in

The antioxidant activity of two polysaccharides isolated from the Indian medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum and Tinospora malabarica, was studied. Only the O. sanctum polysaccharide (OSP) showed significant activity. OSP could prevent oxidative damage to liposomal lipids and plasmid DNA induced by various oxidants such as iron, AAPH and gamma-radiation, besides scavenging important ROS such as the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide and inhibiting xanthine oxidase. In addition, OSP could prevent gamma-radiation-mediated cell deaths in mouse splenocytes.

PMID: 16354414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil.

Singh S, Malhotra M, Majumdar DK.

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110 017, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil showed good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where S. aureus was the most sensitive organism. Sesame and soyabean oils also showed moderate activity against S. aureus. Higher content of linolenic acid in O. sanctum fixed oil could contribute towards its antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity combined with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the oil, could make it useful in inflammatory disorder resulting from staphylococcal infection.

Publication Types: PMID: 16187537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58. Effect of herbal polyphenols on atherogenic transcriptome.

Kaul D, Shukla AR, Sikand K, Dhawan V.

Department of Experimental Medicine & Biotechnology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. dkaul_24@hotmail.com

The ancient Indian system of medicine supports the antiatherogenic properties of some herbs. The crosstalk amongst the genes coding for LDLR, LXRalpha, PPARs (alpha,gamma), CD-36 and c-myc may be important in atherogenesis because these genes control lipid metabolism, cytokine production and cellular activity within the arterial wall. Hence, we attempted for the first time to explore whether or not the polyphenols extracted from medicinal herbs had any effect on the transcription of these genes. Normal human mononuclear cells were cultured in the presence of polyphenols (and their HPLC purified sub-fractions) extracted from Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum). Transcriptional expression of these genes was measured by using RT-PCR and SCION IMAGE analysis software. These polyphenolic extracts were found to have the inherent capacity to inhibit the transcriptional expression of genes having direct involvement in atherogenic process. On the basis of these results, we propose for the first time that HPLC purified polyphenolic fraction IV of Tulsi may have a profound antiatherogenic effect.

PMID: 16180103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.

Prakash P, Gupta N.

Department of Biochemistry, Seema Dental College & Hospital, Barrage Road, Rishikesh, Dehradoon - 249 203, Uttranchal.

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is, however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant.

Publication Types: PMID: 16170979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61. Effect of standardized extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on gastric mucosal offensive and defensive factors.

Goel RK, Sairam K, Dorababu M, Prabha T, Rao ChV.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. rkgoel_bhu@yahoo.co.in

The standardized methanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum (OSE; eugenol content 5%) given in doses of 50-200 mg/kg, orally, twice daily for five days showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effect against cold restraint stress induced gastric ulcers. Optimal effective dose (100 mg/kg) of OSE showed significant ulcer protection against ethanol and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers, but was ineffective against aspirin-induced ulcers. OSE significantly healed ulcers induced by 50% acetic acid after 5 and 10 days treatment OSE (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the offensive acid-pepsin secretion and lipid peroxidation and increased the gastric defensive factors like mucin secretion, cellular mucus, and life span of mucosal cells and had antioxidant effect, but did not induce mucosal cell proliferation. The results indicate that the ulcer protective and healing effects of OSE may be due to its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors.

Publication Types: PMID: 16121713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62. Noise-stress-induced brain neurotransmitter changes and the effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) treatment in albino rats.

Ravindran R, Rathinasamy SD, Samson J, Senthilvelan M.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM. Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai - 600 113.

In this modern world, stress and pollution are unavoidable phenomena affecting the body system at various levels. A large number of people are exposed to potentially hazardous noise levels in daily modern life, such as noise from work environments, urban traffic, and household appliances. A variety of studies have suggested an association between noise exposure and the occurrence of disorders involving extra-auditory organs such as disorders of the nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems. In this study, Wistar strain albino rats were subjected to 100 dB broadband white noise, 4 h daily for 15 days. The high-pressure liquid chromatographic estimation of norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in discrete regions of the rat brain indicates that noise stress can alter the brain biogenic amines after 15 days of stress exposure. Ocimum sanctum (OS), a medicinal herb that is widely claimed to posses antistressor activity and used extensively in the Indian system of medicine for a variety of disorders, was chosen for this study. Administration of the 70% ethanolic extract of OS had a normalizing action on discrete regions of brain and controlled the alteration in neurotransmitter levels due to noise stress, emphasizing the antistressor potential of this plant.

Publication Types: PMID: 16113498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63. Ocimum sanctum modulates selenite-induced cataractogenic changes and prevents rat lens opacification.

Gupta SK, Srivastava S, Trivedi D, Joshi S, Halder N.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. skgup@hotmail.com

PURPOSE: To study the effect of Ocimum sanctum (OS) on selenite-induced morphological and biochemical changes in isolated rat lenses as well as on cataract incidence in rat pups. METHODS: Transparent rat lenses were divided into normal, selenite-only, and four treated groups. Selenite-only and treated group lenses were subjected to oxidative stress in vitro by incorporating sodium selenite (100 microM) in the culture medium. The effect of OS (70, 140, 280, and 560 microg/ml) was studied on the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) in selenite-challenged lenses. The lowest concentration of OS offering significant modulation on these two parameters was determined. Subsequently, the effect of prior and cotreatment with the lowest effective concentration of OS was studied on TBARS, GSH, and on lens antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Changes in lens protein profiles under different incubation conditions were analyzed by SDS gel-electrophoresis. In vivo, cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 micromole/kg b.w.) to 9-day-old rat pups. The anticataract effect of OS (5 and 10 mg/kg b.w.) injected intraperitoneally 4 hr prior to selenite challenge was evaluated by the presence of lens nuclear opacity in rat pups on the 16th postnatal day. Insolubilization of lens proteins post-selenite injection was monitored for 4 days. RESULTS: The lenses in the selenite-only group developed cortical opacities in 24 hr. OS showed different degrees of positive modulation in selenite-induced morphological as well as biochemical changes. The lowest effective dose of OS that significantly modulated glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances was found to be 140 microg/ml. At this dose, a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme levels and preservation of normal lens protein profile was observed. OS at the dose of 70 microg/ml did not show any significant protection with respect to either morphology or biochemistry of lenses. In vivo, 5 and 10 mg/kg of OS reduced the incidence of selenite cataract by 20% and 60%, respectively, and prevented protein insolubilization as well. CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous extract of OS possesses potential anticataract activity against selenite-induced experimental cataractogenesis. The protective effect was supported by restoration of the antioxidant defense system and inhibition of protein insolubilization of rat lenses as well.

Publication Types: PMID: 16020293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate.

Grover JK, Vats V, Yadav SS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies are required to certify their efficacy and safety before clinical scenario.

PMID: 15955128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65. Immunotherapeutic potential of Ocimum sanctum (L) in bovine subclinical mastitis.

Mukherjee R, Dash PK, Ram GC.

Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, UP 243 122, India. reena@ivri.up.nic.in

Immunotherapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaf in bovine sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) was investigated. Somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), milk differential leukocyte count (DLC), phagocytic activity and Phagocytic index and leukocyte lysosomal enzymes like myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase content were evaluated after intramammary infusion of aqueous leaf extract of O. sanctum. The results revealed that the aqueous extract of O. sanctum treatment reduced the TBC and increased neutrophil and lymphocyte counts with enhanced phagocytic activity and phagocytic index. Similarly, the lysosomal enzymes contents of the milk polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were also enhanced significantly in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that the crude aqueous extract of O. sanctum (leaf) possesses some biologically active principles that are antibacterial and immunomodulatory in nature. As such, the present wok substantiates the therapeutic use of medicinal herb and also emphasizes on the potential of the commonly available non-toxic substances to enhance the mammary immunity.

Publication Types: PMID: 15894022 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66. Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Aqil F, Khan MS, Owais M, Ahmad I.

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh--202002 India.

Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common beta-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced beta-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta-lactam antibiotics, tested. The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits) showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind) exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. TLC-bioautography indicated phenols and flavonoids as major active compounds.

Publication Types: PMID: 15812867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67. Mineral content of some medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Narendhirakannan RT, Subramanian S, Kandaswamy M.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Chennai-25, India.

It is known that certain inorganic trace elements such as vanadium, zinc, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, and nickel play an important role in the maintenance of normoglycemia by activating the beta-cells of the pancreas. In the present study, the elemental composition in the leaves of four traditional medicinal plants (Murraya koenigii, Mentha piperitae, Ocimum sanctum, and Aegle marmelos) widely used in the treatment of diabetes-related metabolic disorders has been studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Cu, Ni, Zn, K, and Na were found to be in trace amounts, whereas Fe, Cr, and V levels were found in marginal levels. The importance of these elements in disorders related to diabetes is also briefly discussed.

Publication Types: PMID: 15772435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68. Preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Shokeen P, Ray K, Bala M, Tandon V.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

BACKGROUND: Despite the progressive increase of antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae worldwide, there are limited reports of alternative remedies from plants. GOAL: The aim of the current study was to screen 3 plants, Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa, for activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. STUDY: By disc diffusion method, extracts of these 3 plants were screened for activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae; their antimicrobial activity was calculated as percentage inhibition and compared with penicillin and ciprofloxacin. RESULTS: The extracts of all 3 plants caused inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates and World Health Organization (WHO) strains, more so than the multidrug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. CONCLUSION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates and WHO strains were sensitive to extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa. This motivates us to isolate the active component/second from the 3 plants.

PMID: 15668617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69. Chronic oral administration of Ocimum sanctum Linn. augments cardiac endogenous antioxidants and prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

Sood S, Narang D, Dinda AK, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110 029, India.

Wistar rats (200-250 g) of either sex were fed with fresh leaf homogenate of Ocimum sanctum by oral gavage in two different doses, 50 mg kg-1(Os 50) and 100 mg kg-1 (Os 100), daily for 30 days. This was followed by isoproterenol administration (85 mg kg-1 s.c. two doses at 24h intervals) in both control and 0. sanctum-fed rats to induce myocardial necrosis. Hearts were isolated for estimation of endogenous myocardial antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and myocardial lipid peroxidation) and light microscopic study. Increased basal myocardial antioxidant SOD (9.3 +/- 1.2 vs 3.7 +/- 0.7 units mg-1 protein; P<0.05) and catalase activities (34.3 +/- 5.4 vs 17.9 +/- 5.1 units mg-1 protein; P< 0.05) were observed in the Os 50 group only without any evidence of cellular injury in both the groups. In control rats, isoproterenol administration caused significant depletion of myocardial SOD (1.7 +/- 0.2 units mg-1 protein) and GPx (104 +/- 2mU mg-1 protein) activities and increase in GSH (551.7 +/- 30.9, microg g-1 wet weight of tissue) level, with evidence of myocardial necrosis. Isoproterenol-induced changes in myocardial SOD, GPx and GSH were prevented by both the doses of 0. sanctum, however cellular injury was minimal only with 50mg kg-1. The results indicate that long-term feeding of 0. sanctum offered significant protection against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis through a unique property of enhancement of endogenous antioxidants.

Publication Types: PMID: 15651118 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on the changes in central cholinergic system induced by acute noise stress.

Sembulingam K, Sembulingam P, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (Deemed University), Porur, Chennai 600116, India. ksembu@yahoo.com

The ethanolic extract from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn was screened for its effects on the noise induced changes in the central cholinergic system of albino rats by investigating the acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete areas of brain. Exposure to noise (10 kHz:100 dB) stress for 30 min caused a significant reduction in total acetylcholine content and increase in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of brain. Pretreatment of the animals with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves for 7 days prevented the noise induced changes in these two cholinergic parameters in all the four areas of brain. The results of the study indicate the protective nature of the plant material on the brain tissues against the detrimental effect of noise stress.

Publication Types. PMID: 15619567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71. Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through inhibition in corticosteroid concentration.

Gholap S, Kar A.

School of Life Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, India.

To unravel the possible mechanism of glucose lowering activity, effects of ten different plant extracts in the regulation of serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were evaluated in male mice. While the extracts of Inula racemosa, Boerhaavia diffusa and Ocimum sanctum decreased the serum concentration of both cortisol and glucose, Aegle marmelos, Azadirachta indica and Gymnema sylvestre extracts could exhibit hypoglycaemic activity without altering the serum cortisol concentration. It appears that the hypoglycaemic effects of former three plant extracts are mediated through their cortisol inhibiting potency, whereas the mechanism for other plant extracts could be different. Lipid-peroxidation was not enhanced by any of the plant extracts (some were in fact, antiperoxidative in nature). As I. racemosa, B. diffusa and O. sanctum exhibited antiperoxidative, hypoglycaemic and cortisol lowering activities, it is suggested that these three plant extracts may potentially regulate corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus.

Publication Types: PMID: 15587591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72. Essential oil yield and quality of methyl eugenol rich Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f. (syn. O. sanctum L.) grown in south India as influenced by method of harvest.

Kothari SK, Bhattacharya AK, Ramesh S.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Field Station, Boduppal, Uppal (PO), Hyderabad 500039, India. cimaphyd@rediffmail.com

A field experiment carried out during 2001--2002 under semi-arid conditions of Hyderabad, India investigated the effect of three different methods of harvesting at full bloom stage, on essential oil yield and quality of methyl eugenol rich sacred/holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f.; Lamiaceae). The harvest methods were: harvesting of primary branches, secondary branches and shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground level. Four harvests at 102, 192, 287 and 360 days after transplanting of the crop were taken in 1 year in each method of harvest. Harvesting of secondary branches led to maximum plant height and number of secondary branches per plant compared to harvesting of primary branches or shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground during second, third and fourth harvests. On the contrary, secondary branch harvest gave least biomass yield in all the four harvests. But due to higher essential oil content, secondary branch harvest gave 25.2 and 15.4% higher total (sum total of all four harvests) essential oil yield (kg/ha per year) over primary branches and shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground methods of harvesting, respectively. A similar treatment difference was observed in respect of oil composition studied in the first harvest. Harvesting shoot biomass at 30 cm above ground produced oil containing highest amount of methyl eugenol. The content of methyl eugenol decreased in the order of shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground > primary branch > secondary branch treatments. A reverse trend was observed, however, in respect of (E)-cinnamyl acetate, eugenol and beta-elemene constituents of the oil. Little variability was, however, observed among the treatments in respect of 24 other constituents of the oils.

PMID: 15553132 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by botanical extracts of Ocimum sanctum: in vivo and in vitro studies.

Geetha RK, Vasudevan DM.

DVS College of Arts and Science, Shimoga, Pin-577 201, Karnataka, India. geethasamak@yahoo.com

Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has significant ability to scavenge highly reactive free radicals. Shade dried leaf powder of the plant was extracted with water and alcohol, and then fractionated with different solvents. Both extracts and their fractions have in vitro anti-lipidperoxidative activity at very low concentrations. In vivo, hypercholesterolemia-induced erythrocyte lipid peroxidation activity was inhibited by aqueous extracts of Ocimum in a dose-dependent manner in male albino rabbits. Aqueous extract feeding also provided significant liver and aortic tissue protection from hypercholesterolemia-induced peroxidative damage.

Publication Types: PMID: 15532130 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

Rani P, Khullar N.

Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India.

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma.

Publication Types: PMID: 15476301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75. Evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum on transient cerebral ischemia and long-term cerebral hypoperfusion.

Yanpallewar SU, Rai S, Kumar M, Acharya SB.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 221 005 Varanasi, India.

Free radicals are implicated in causation of cerebral reperfusion injury and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats is associated with functional and histopathological disturbances. Ocimum sanctum (OS), a plant widely used in Ayurveda, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cognition-enhancing properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of methanolic extract of OS leaves in cerebral reperfusion injury as well as long-term hypoperfusion. Occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA) for 30 min followed by 45 min reperfusion caused increase in lipid peroxidation and up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity accompanied by fall in tissue total sulfhydryl groups (TSH) in rat forebrains. Ascorbic acid levels were unchanged, however. OS pretreatment (200 mg/kg/day for 7 days) prevented this reperfusion-induced rise in lipid peroxidation and SOD activity. OS pretreatment also stabilized the levels of TSH during reperfusion. Long-term cerebral hypoperfusion (a model of cerebrovascular insufficiency and dementia) induced by permanent occlusion of BCCA for 15 days demonstrated altered exploratory behavior in open-field testing and memory deficits as tested by Morris' water maze. Histopathological examination of hypoperfused animals revealed reactive changes, like cellular edema, gliosis and perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. OS treatment (200 mg/kg/day for 15 days) significantly prevented these hypoperfusion-induced functional and structural disturbances. The results suggest that OS may be useful in treatment of cerebral reperfusion injury and cerebrovascular insufficiency states.

PMID: 15388295 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India. gc.jagetia@kmc.manipal.edu

The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.

Publication Types: PMID: 15383230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77. Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures.

Jaggi RK, Madaan R, Singh B.

University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India.

Callus cultures from stem of O. sanctum were induced on slightly modified Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium and supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1-2 ppm) and kinetin (kn, 1 ppm). Different extractives of stem, leaf and stem callus of O. sanctum were tested for anticonvulsant activity against standard drug phenytoin using maximal electroshock (MES) model. Ethanol and chloroform extractives of stem, leaf and stem calli were effective in preventing tonic convulsions induced by transcorneal electroshock.

Publication Types: PMID: 15332507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78. Anti-cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats.

Vats V, Yadav SP, Biswas NR, Grover JK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 4th Floor, Teaching Block, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.

Long-term complications are frequently encountered in diabetes mellitus and are difficult to treat. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of three antidiabetic plants on the development of cataract in rats. An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM, Hindi name: Vijaysar) (1 g kg(-1) day(-1)), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS, Hindi name, Tulsi) (200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn seeds (FG, Hindi name, Methi) (2 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were given to alloxan (120 mg kg(-1)) diabetic rats until the development of cataract. Serum glucose and body weight were monitored at regular intervals while cataract was examined through naked eye as well as slit lamp at 75, 100 and 115 days after alloxan administration. Administration of all the three plant extracts exerted a favorable effect on body weight and blood glucose, the effects were best with PM followed by FG and OS. On the course of cataract development, PM followed by FG exerted anti-cataract effect evident from decreased opacity index while OS failed to produce any anti-cataract effect in spite of significant antihyperglycemic activity.

PMID: 15234767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80. Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic and ulcer-healing properties of Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Dharmani P, Kuchibhotla VK, Maurya R, Srivastava S, Sharma S, Palit G.

Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, P.O. Box 173, Lucknow 226001, UP, India.

Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We evaluated its anti-ulcerogenic activity in cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in Sprague-Dawley rats, histamine-induced duodenal (HST) ulcer in guinea pigs, and ulcer-healing activity, in acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model. We found that OS, decreased the incidence of ulcers and also enhanced the healing of ulcers. OS at a dose of 100 mg/kg was found to be effective in CRU (65.07%), ASP (63.49%), AL (53.87%), PL (62.06%), and HST (61.76%) induced ulcer models and significantly reduced free, total acidity and peptic activity by 72.58, 58.63, 57.6%, respectively, and increased mucin secretion by 34.61%. Additionally, OS completely healed the ulcers within 20 days of treatment in AC. We observed that anti-ulcer effect of OS may be due to its cytoprotective effect rather than antisecretory activity. Conclusively, OS was found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic as well as ulcer-healing properties and could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

Publication Types: PMID: 15234753 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves partially attenuates streptozotocin-induced alterations in glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolism in rats.

Vats V, Yadav SP, Grover JK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110049, India.

Ocimum sanctum (OS) has been mentioned in Indian system of traditional medicine to be of value in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. We have previously shown that OS shows a dose-dependent hypoglycemic effect and prevented rise in plasma glucose in normal rats. It also showed significant antihyperglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetes. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of OS on three important enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism [glucokinase (GK) (EC, hexokinase (HK) (EC and phosphofructokinase (PFK) (EC] along with glycogen content of insulin-dependent (skeletal muscle and liver) and insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) in STZ (65 mg/kg) induced model of diabetes for 30 days. Administration of OS extract 200mg/kg for 30 days led to decrease in plasma glucose levels by approximately 9.06 and 26.4% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and two-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus normal controls. OS significantly decreased renal (P<0.0005) but not liver weight. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls versus controls. OS did not affect glycogen content in any tissue. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and OS partially corrected this alteration.

PMID: 14698524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82. Antiatherogenic effect of Caps HT2, a herbal Ayurvedic medicine formulation.

Mary NK, Babu BH, Padikkala J.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

The antiatherogenic effect of a herbal formulation, Caps HT2, was evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase releasing, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidaemic activity in rats. The formulation contained the methanolic extracts of selected parts of plants, Commiphora mukul, Allium sativum, Plumbago indica, Semecarpus anacardium, Hemidesmus indicus, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum. The formulation, Caps HT2 was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals; the IC50 required being 55.0 and 610.0 microg/ml respectively. The lipid peroxidation was found inhibited (50%) by 48.5 microg/ml of Caps HT2. The intravenous administration of the formulation (5 mg/kg) delayed the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and enhanced the release of lipoprotein lipase enzyme significantly (p < 0.001). The formulation also inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to commercial heparin. The anti-inflammatory action of the formulation was significant (p < 0.001) with acute and chronic inflammations induced by carrageenan and formalin respectively in rats. The hypolipidaemic effect of Caps HT2 was significant (p < 0.001) with the administration of the formulation, in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia of rats for a period of 30 days. Oral administration of the formulation, Caps HT2 (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg) significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The atherogenic index and the reduction in body weight were significant indicating the effectiveness against hyperlipidaemia and obesity. All these results revealed the therapeutic potential of Caps HT2 against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading to various types of cardiovascular problems.

PMID: 13678230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83. Antinociceptive action of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) in mice: possible mechanisms involved.

Khanna N, Bhatia J.

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Medical Sciences, G.T.B. Hospital, Shahdara, Delhi 110095, India. khanna_naresh@hotmail.com

The alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (OS, Tulsi) was tested for analgesic activity in mice. In the glacial acetic acid (GAA)-induced writhing test, OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.; and 50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number of writhes. OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased the tail withdrawal latency in mice. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an opioid antagonist, and DSP-4 (50 mg/kg, i.p.), a central noradrenaline depletor, attenuated the analgesic effect of OS in both the experimental models, whereas, PCPA (300 mg/kg, i.p.), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the action of OS on tail flick response in mice. The results of our study suggest that the analgesic action of OS is exerted both centrally as well as peripherally and involves an interplay between various neurotransmitter systems.

PMID: 12963158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84. Protective effect of a polyherbal formulation (Immu-21) against cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity in mice.

Jena GB, Nemmani KV, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S A S Nagar, Punjab 160 062, India.

The object was to evaluate the effects of a polyherbal formulation, Immu-21, against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) in mice. CP alone (40 mg/kg, i.p.) produced classical as well as non-classical chromosomal aberrations in mice, and the incidence of CA was significantly more in the CP treated group when compared with that of the control group. Immu-21, which contains extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia, was given at 100 mg/kg, daily, over 7 days, and 30 mg/kg daily over 14 days and inhibited both CP-induced classical and non-classical chromosomal aberrations ( approximately 40%-60% of control). A significant increase in MN was also observed in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated with CP, and pretreatment with Immu-21 also significantly reduced these. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by estimating the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). The present results indicate that chronic treatment with Immu-21 prevented CP-induced genotoxicity in mice. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 12722129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85. Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on neurochemical perturbations induced by chronic stress.

Bhattacharya A, Muruganandam AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK.

Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

EuMil, a polyherbal formulation consisting of standardised extracts of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L, Asparagus racemosus Wilid and Emblica officinalis Gaertn., is used as an anti-stress agent to attenuate the various aspects of stress related disorders. In the present study, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the anti-stress activity of EuMil were evaluated by measuring the rat brain monoamine neurotransmitter levels and tribulin activity. Chronic electroshock stress (14 days) significantly decreased the nor-adrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in frontal Cortex, pons-medulla, hypothalamus, hippocampus and striatal, hypothalamal region, respectively, and increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) level in frontal cortex, pons medulla, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Chronic stress, also increased the rat brain tribulin activity. EuMil (100 mg/kg, p.o., 14 days) treatment normalized the perturbed regional NA, DA, 5HT concentrations, induced by chronic stress. EuMil also significantly attenuated the stress-induced increase in the rat brain tribulin activity. The amelioration of chronic stress-induced neurochemical perturbations by EuMil explains the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the observed putative anti-stress activity of the product.

Publication Types: PMID: 12693697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86. Effect of poly herbal formulation, EuMil, on chronic stress-induced homeostatic perturbations in rats.

Muruganandam AV, Kumar V, Bhattacharya SK.

R & D Centre, Indian Herbs Ltd., Saharanpur 247 001, India. ihsre@vsnl.com

EuMil, is a herbal formulation comprising the standardised extracts of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal, Ocimum sanctum L, Asparagus racemosus Willd and Emblica officinalis Gaertn., all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas to promote physical and mental health, improve defense mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection to the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic and antistress activity of EuMil against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress-induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Panex ginseng (PG) was used for comparison. Gastric ulceration, plasma corticosterone levels, serum lipid, hepatic and renal functions were used as the stress indices. These effects were attenuated by EuMil (dose 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg. p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction period. Further, chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural despair and cognitive dysfunction and immunosuppression. All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, in a dose dependent manner by EuMil and PG. Thus, the results indicate that EuMil has significant adaptogenic and anti-stress, activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations, induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute stress. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of EuMil in the observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, has been discussed.

Publication Types:PMID: 12693696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
87. Lens aldose reductase inhibiting potential of some indigenous plants.

Halder N, Joshi S, Gupta SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldover. Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for cataractogenesis and aldose reductase (AR) has been reported to play an important role in sugar-induced cataract. In the present study, the AR inhibitory activity of Ocimum sanctum (OS), Withania somnifera (WS), Curcuma longa (CL), Azadirachta indica (AI) were studied together with their effect on sugar-induced cataractogenic changes in rat lenses in vitro. Aqueous extracts of the plants, procured from Dabur, India, were reconstituted with double distilled water to make various dilutions. AR inhibitory activity of these extracts and their anticataract potentials were evaluated in vitro in rat lenses. AR inhibitory activity of the aqueous extract of different plants was calculated considering the AR activity of normal rat lenses as 100%. The concentration of the plant extract that showed maximum AR inhibitory activity was selected to further study its effect on galactose-induced lens swelling and polyol accumulation in vitro. All the four plants were found to inhibit lens AR activity but to different extent. From dose-response curve, OS was found to be the most effective AR inhibitor followed by CL, AI and WS. The IC(50) values of OS, CL, AI and WS were calculated to be 20, 55, 57 and 89 microg/ml, respectively. OS showed a significant inhibition (38.05%) in polyol accumulation followed by CL and AI (28.4 and 25.04%, respectively). WS did not show any effect on polyol level in rat lenses. None of the plant extracts showed any significant effect on lens water content.OS possesses a significant anticataract activity in vitro and its anticataract potential could be related with its AR inhibitory effect.

PMID: 12686449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

88. Cell proliferation and natural killer cell activity by polyherbal formulation, Immu-21 in mice.

Nemmani KV, Jena GB, Dey CS, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S. A. S. Nagar 160 062, India.

Immunomodulatory activity of an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, Immu-21 containing extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia was studied on proliferative response of splenic leukocytes to T cell mitogens, concanavalin (Con)-A and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and B cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro by [3H]-thymidine uptake assay in mice. The cytotoxic activity of Immu-21 was tested by measuring the splenic leukocyte natural killer (NK) cell activity against K 562 cells. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with Immu-21 (30 mg/kg) once a day for 14 and 21 days did not cause change in body weight and spleen weight, where as splenocytes/spleen count was increased. Treatment of Immu-21 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 days and 1 mg/kg for 21 days significantly increased LPS induced leukocyte proliferation. NK cell activity was significantly increased when mice were pretreated with Immu-21 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day for 7 days. The results indicate that pretreatment with Immu-21 selectively increased the proliferation of splenic leukocyte to B cell mitogen, LPS and cytotoxic activity against K 562 cells in mice.

Publication Types: PMID: 12635697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90. Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant.

Gupta SK, Prakash J, Srivastava S.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India. skgup@hotmail.com

In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy, genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present review incorporates the description of O. sanctum plant, its chemical constituents, and various pharmacological activities.

Publication Types: PMID: 12597545 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91. Ocimum sanctum aqueous leaf extract provides protection against mercury induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

Sharma MK, Kumar M, Kumar A.

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302 004, India.

HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg body weight) induced toxicity led to significant elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) level but decline in the glutathione content in liver of Swiss albino mice. In serum of HgCl2 treated mice there was significant elevation in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activities but significant decline in the alkaline phosphatase activity. Animals treated with O. sanctum extract (10 mg/kg body weight, po) before and after mercury intoxication showed a significant decrease in LPO level, SGOT and SGPT activities and increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Ocimum treatment alone did not alter SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase activities but significantly enhanced reduced glutathione. The results suggest that oral administration of Ocimum extract provides protection against HgCl2 induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

Publication Types:PMID: 12587743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG.

Satsang Herbal Research and Analytical Laboratories, PO Satsang-814 116 Deoghar, India. pratip_neogy@hotmail.com

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once, twice or thrice daily, as needed. While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in decreasing order in the following 24 samples-Coccinia indica, Tragia involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita, Momordica charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum. Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental results. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

PMID: 12499084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
93. A comparative study of different crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum on noise stress.

Archana R, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai - 600 113, India.

Our previous studies have shown that the ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (OS) leaves was effective in alleviating the noise stress induced changes. Hence in this study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different types of crude OS extracts on some of the stress parameters after noise stress. The results of this study has shown that the active principle responsible for antistressor effect of ethanolic extract is also present in cold homogenised leaf extract of OS also. Hot extracts slightly decrease the potency of the active principle in normalizing corticosteroid level. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 12237819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94. Reversible anti-fertility effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on sperm parameters and fructose content in rats.

Ahmed M, Ahamed RN, Aladakatti RH, Ghosesawar MG.

Department of Post-Graduate Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India.

Treatment of albino rats with a benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves (250 mg/kg body weight) for 48 d decreased total sperm count, sperm motility, and forward velocity. The percentage of abnormal sperm increased in caudal epididymal fluid, and the fructose content decreased in the caudal plasma of the epididymis and the seminal vesicles. The results suggest that such effects are due to androgen deprivation, caused by the anti-androgenic property of O. sanctum leaves. The effect was reversible because all parameters returned to normal 2 wk after the withdrawal of treatment.

PMID: 12099405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95. Activity of Ocimum sanctum (the traditional Indian medicinal plant) against the enteric pathogens.

Geeta, Vasudevan DM, Kedlaya R, Deepa S, Ballal M.

Dept. of Microbiology, Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences.

Aqueous & alcoholic extracts of O. sanctum were prepared. Two concentrations of these extracts (30 mg & 60 mg) were tried against the enteric pathogens & candida albicans by Agar diffusion method. Wide zones of inhibition were observed at 60 mg concentration of extract. Aqeous extract showed wider zone of inhibition when compared to alcoholic extract. Aqueous extract showed wider zones of inhibition for Klebisella, E. Coil, Proteus & Staphylococcus aureus. Alcoholic extract showed wider zone for vibrio cholerae.

Publication Types:PMID: 12026506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110049, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 12020931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97. Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of Ocimum sanctum seed oil and its possible mechanism of action.

Mediratta PK, Sharma KK, Singh S.

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, 110095, New Delhi, India.

The present study investigates the effect of Ocimum sanctum seed oil (OSSO) on some immunological parameters in both non-stressed and stressed animals. An attempt has also been made to explore the possible mechanism of immunomodulatory activity. OSSO (3 ml/kg, ip) produced a significant increase in anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody titre and a decrease in percentage histamine release from peritoneal mast cells of sensitized rats (humoral immune responses), and decrease in footpad thickness and percentage leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI) (cell-mediated immune responses). Restraint stress (RS) produced a significant reduction in the anti-SRBC antibody titre, foot pad thickness and percentage LMI (% LMI). The effects of RS on humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses were effectively attenuated by pretreating the animals with OSSO. Co-administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg, sc), a benzodiazepine (BZD), with OSSO (1 ml/kg, ip) enhanced the effect of OSSO on RS-induced changes in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Further, flumazenil (5 mg/kg, ip), a central BZD receptor antagonist inhibited the immunomodulatory action of OSSO on RS-induced immune responsiveness. Thus, OSSO appears to modulate both humoral and cell-mediated immune responsiveness and these immunomodulatory effects may be mediated by GABAergic pathways.

PMID: 11891082 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98. Evaluation of Ophthacare eye drops--a herbal formulation in the management of various ophthalmic disorders.

Biswas NR, Gupta SK, Das GK, Kumar N, Mongre PK, Haldar D, Beri S.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

An open prospective multicentre clinical trial was conducted in patients suffering from various ophthalmic disorders namely, conjunctivitis, conjunctival xerosis (dry eye), acute dacryocystitis, degenerative conditions (pterygium or pinguecula) and postoperative cataract patients with a herbal eye drop preparation (Ophthacare) containing basic principles of different herbs which have been conventionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. These include Carum copticum, Terminalia belirica, Emblica officinalis, Curcuma longa, Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum camphora, Rosa damascena and meldespumapum. These herbs reportedly possess antiinfective and antiinflammatory properties. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of this herbal product in a variety of eye ailments. Side effects, if any, were noted during the study. An improvement was observed with the treatment of the herbal eye drop treatment in most cases. There were no side effects observed during the course of the study and the eye drop was well tolerated by the patients. The herbal eye drop Ophthacare has a useful role in a variety of infective, inflammatory and degenerative ophthalmic disorders. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 11746845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats.

Vats V, Grover JK, Rathi SS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, 110 049, New Delhi, India.

The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous (Aq) extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) and alcoholic (Alc) extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (FG) and leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OS) was investigated in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The Aq extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood sugar levels from 72.32+/-5.62 to 61.35+/-1.2 mg% 2 h after oral administration of the extract and also significantly lowered the blood glucose in alloxan diabetic rats from 202.91+/-5.44 to 85.22+/-11.28 mg% 21 days after daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Similarly, reduction was seen with Alc extract of FG (74.33+/-4.77 to 60.56+/-1.9 in normal rats and 201.25+/-7.69 to 121.25+/-6.25 in diabetic rats) (P<0.001) and OS (204.48+/-11.0 to 131.43+/-7.86 in normal rats and 73.54+/-3.7 to 61.44+/-2.3 in diabetic rats) (P<0.001). In addition, the extract also showed a favorable effect on glucose disposition in glucose fed hyperglycemic rats.

PMID: 11744301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
100. Cardioprotective potential of ocimum sanctum in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

Sharma M, Kishore K, Gupta SK, Joshi S, Arya DS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi.

Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in rats with 85, 200 and 300 mg/kg of isoproterenol (ISO) administered subcutaneously (sc) twice at an interval of 24 h. Shift in antioxidant parameters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) together with morphological and histopathological changes were investigated. Two hundred mg/kg ISO dose was selected for the present study as this dose offered significant alteration in biochemical parameters along with moderate necrosis in heart. Effect of pre- and co-treatment of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Os) at different doses (25, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was investigated against ISO (200 mg/kg) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Modulation of various biochemical parameters and membrane integrity was studied. Os at the dose of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg reduced significantly glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and LDH levels. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation as observed by the reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. In the present study Os at the dose of 50 mg/kg was found to demonstrate maximum cardioprotective effect. Above results were further confirmed by histopathological findings. Thus from the present study it is concluded that Os may be of therapeutic and prophylactic value in the treatment of MI.

Publication Types: PMID: 11716367 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101. Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on blood pressure, blood clotting time and pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time.

Singh S, Rehan HM, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, 110017, New Delhi, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil produced hypotensive effect in anaesthetised dog, which seems to be due to its peripheral vasodilatory action. The oil increased blood-clotting time and percentage increase was comparable to aspirin and could be due to inhibition of platelet aggregation. The oil also increased pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time in rats indicating probable inhibitory effect of oil towards cytochromic enzyme responsible for hepatic metabolism of pentobarbitone.

Publication Types: PMID: 11694358 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102. Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin.

Vrinda B, Uma Devi P.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 119, India.

Orientin (Ot) and Vicenin (Vc), two water-soluble flavonoids isolated from the leaves of Indian holy basil Ocimum sanctum have shown significant protection against radiation lethality and chromosomal aberrations in vivo. In the present study the protective effect of Ot and Vc against radiation induced chromosome damage in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes was determined by micronucleus test. In order to select the most effective drug concentration, fresh whole blood was exposed to 4Gy of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation with or without a 30 min pre-treatment with 6.25, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 or 20 microM of Ot/Vc. Micronucleus (MN) assay was done by cytochalasin induced cytokinesis block method. Radiation significantly increased the MN frequency (16 times normal). Pre-treatment with either Ot or Vc at all concentrations significantly (P<0.05-0.001) reduced the MN count in a concentration dependent manner, with the optimum effect at 17.5 microM. Therefore, fresh blood samples were incubated with/without 17.5 microM Ot/Vc for 30 min and then exposed to 0.5-4Gy of gamma-radiation. Radiation increased the MN frequency linearly (r(2)=0.99) with dose. Pre-treatment with Ot or Vc significantly (P<0.01-0.001) reduced the MN counts to 51-67% of RT alone values, giving DMFs of 2.62 (Ot) and 2.48 (Vc). Both the compounds showed significant antioxidant activity in vitro at the above concentrations, which was significantly higher than that of DMSO at equimolar concentrations. Thus, the results demonstrate that both the flavonoids give significant protection to the human lymphocytes against the clastogenic effect of radiation at low, non-toxic concentrations. The radioprotection seems to be associated with their antioxidant activity. The clinical potential of these protectors in cancer therapy needs to be investigated.

Publication Types: PMID: 11673069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
103.Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol.

Asha MK, Prashanth D, Murali B, Padmaja R, Amit A.

Bioassay Unit, Research and Development Centre, Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Plot No. 5B, Veerasandra Indl. Area, Hosur Road, Bangalore 561 229, India.

The essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol, tested in vitro, showed potent anthelmintic activity in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Eugenol exhibited an ED(50) of 62.1 microg/ml. Eugenol being the predominant component of the essential oil, is suggested as the putative anthelmintic principle.

PMID: 11543966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105. Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic rasayanas.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti A.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris and shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, and plasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standard adaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress, were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and MAOB inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels, with concomitant decreases in spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects were attenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim despair test and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), and immunosuppression (leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema in sensitized rats). All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results indicate that ST has significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and physiological perturbations induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.

Publication Types:PMID: 11218827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106. Anti-Cryptococcus activity of combination of extracts of Cassia alata and Ocimum sanctum.

Ranganathan S, Balajee SA.

Centre for Biotechnology, SPIC Science Foundation, Guindy, Madras, India.

The paper reports the anti-Cryptococcus activity of combination of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cassia alata and Ocimum sanctum. The activity of combination of the extracts was heat-stable and worked at acidic pH.

PMID: 11036400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107. Effect of Ocimum sanctum on noise induced changes in neutrophil functions.

Archana R, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, 600 113, Madras, India.

The effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum was studied on the noise stress induced changes in albino rats. Acute noise stress caused leukopenia, increased corticosterone level and enhanced the neutrophil functions as indicated by an increase in the Candida phagocytosis and Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. Pretreatment with the O. sanctum Linn. (OS) extract brought back the stress altered values to normal levels indicating the stress alleviating effect of O. sanctum.

PMID: 11025142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

108. Radiation protection by the ocimum flavonoids orientin and vicenin: mechanisms of action.

Uma Devi P, Ganasoundari A, Vrinda B, Srinivasan KK, Unnikrishnan MK.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College.

In previous studies, flavonoids, orientin and vicenin, that were isolated from the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum, were found to protect mice against radiation injury. Several flavonoids are known to be good antioxidants. Therefore, the effect of orientin and vicenin on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in vivo and their antioxidant activity in vitro were studied. Adult mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50 microgram/kg of orientin or vicenin and exposed whole-body to 3 Gy of gamma radiation. Lipid peroxidation was measured in the liver 15 min to 8 h postirradiation. The antioxidant activity of orientin/vicenin (10-500 microM) was studied by measuring inhibition of hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (Fe(3+)-EDTA-ascorbic acid-H(2)O(2)) in vitro. The compounds were also tested for possible pro-oxidant and iron chelation activities at the above concentrations in the in vitro system. Orientin and vicenin provided almost equal protection against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver. Both compounds showed a significantly greater free radical-inhibiting activity in vitro than DMSO. Neither orientin nor vicenin showed any pro-oxidant activity at the concentrations tested. Both compounds inhibited free radical formation in the absence of EDTA. Free radical scavenging appears to be a likely mechanism of radiation protection by these flavonoids.

Publication Types: PMID: 11023610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109. Chemopreventive activity of Ocimum sanctum seed oil.

Prakash J, Gupta SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

The seed oil of Ocimum sanctum was evaluated for chemopreventive activity against subcutaneously injected 20-methylcholanthrene induced-fibrosarcoma tumors in the thigh region of Swiss albino mice. Supplementation of maximal tolerated dose (100 microl/kg body weight) of the oil significantly reduced 20-methylcholanthrene induced tumor incidence and tumor volume. The enhanced survival rate and delay in tumor incidence was observed in seed oil supplemented mice. Liver enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) and lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde levels were significantly modulated with oil treatment as compared to untreated 20-methylcholanthrene injected mice. The results of this study suggest that the potential chemopreventive activity of the oil is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties. The chemopreventive efficacy of 100 microl/kg seed oil was comparable to that of 80 mg/kg of vitamin E.

Publication Types: PMID: 10967450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110. Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on vascular permeability and leucocytes migration.

Singh S, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi), New Delhi, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil significantly inhibited the rise in protein concentration and dye leakage in peritoneal fluid in experimentally induced peritoneal inflammation in mice. In carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, the fixed oil showed significant inhibition of leucocytes migration in the pleural exudate. The results suggest that the fixed oil can inhibit enhancement of the vascular/capillary permability and leucocyte migration following inflammatory stimulus.

PMID: 10783746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, DeWitt DL.

Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology, Michigan State University, USA.

Anti-oxidant bioassay-directed extraction of the fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum and purification of the extract yielded the following compounds; cirsilineol [1], cirsimaritin [2], isothymusin [3], isothymonin [4], apigenin [5], rosmarinic acid [6], and appreciable quantities of eugenol. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established using spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 5 were isolated previously from O. sanctum whereas compounds 2 and 3 are here identified for the first time from O. sanctum. Eugenol, a major component of the volatile oil, and compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 demonstrated good antioxidant activity at 10-microM concentrations. Anti-inflammatory activity or cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of these compounds were observed. Eugenol demonstrated 97% cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory activity when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 displayed 37, 50, 37, 65, and 58% cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory activity, respectively, when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. Eugenol and compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 demonstrated cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity at slightly higher levels when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. The activities of compounds 1-6 were comparable to ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin at 10-, 10-, and 1000-microM concentrations, respectively. These results support traditional uses of O. sanctum and identify the compounds responsible.

Publication Types: .PMID: 10782484 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

112.Effect of Ocimum sanctum roots extract on swimming performance in mice.

Maity TK, Mandal SC, Saha BP, Pal M.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur, Ganjam, Orissa - 760 002, India.

The effect of a methanol extract, obtained from the roots of Ocimum sanctum, on mouse swimming performance were studied using three different doses. On the basis of our findings, a high dose (400 mg/kg, i.p.) of the extracts of Ocimum sanctum increased the swimming time suggesting a central nervous system stimulant and/or antistress activity. The effect produced by the extract was comparable to that of desipramine, an antidepressant drug. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 10685110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113. Modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum and its role in protection against radiation injury.

Devi PU, Ganasoundari A.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. info@mahe.ernet.in

Aqueous extract (OE) of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. Therefore a study was conducted to see if OE protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in radioprotection by OE. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg of OE for 5 consecutive days and exposed to 4.5 Gy of gamma radiation 30 min after the last injection. Glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), reductase (GSRx), peroxidase (GSPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as lipid peroxide (LPx) activity were estimated in the liver at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr post-treatment. LPx was also studied after treatment with a single dose of 50 mg/kg of OE with/without irradiation. OE itself increased the GSH and enzymes significantly above normal levels whereas radiation significantly reduced all the values. The maximum decline was at 30-60 min for GSH and related enzymes and at 2 hr for SOD. Pretreatment with the extract checked the radiation induced depletion of GSH and all the enzymes and maintained their levels within or above the control range. Radiation significantly increased the lipid peroxidation rate, reaching a maximum value at 2 hr after exposure (approximately 3.5 times that of control). OE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation and accelerated recovery to normal levels. The results indicate that Ocimum extract protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation and that GSH and the antioxidant enzymes appear to have an important role in the protection.

Publication Types: PMID: 10641157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114. A comparative evaluation of some blood sugar lowering agents of plant origin.

Chattopadhyay RR.

Biometry Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.

A comparison of blood sugar lowering activity of four important medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Catharanthus roseus and Ocimum sanctum) were carried out against normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models. The plant extracts decreased the blood sugar level in varying degrees. Blood sugar lowering unit (BLU) of activity of each leaf extract and tolbutamide was calculated by ED50 values. Statistical analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05) variation among the treatments as well as doses with regard to their blood sugar lowering capacity. A. indica leaf extract was found to have the most potent blood sugar-lowering activity followed by C. roseus, G. sylvestre and O. sanctum.

Publication Types:PMID: 10617074 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Ayurveda Research Centre, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India. kemarc@bom3.vsnl.net.in

Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential. However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose, following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested. All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked. Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation.

Publication Types: PMID: 10404532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116. Comparative evaluation of antiinflammatory potential of fixed oil of different species of Ocimum and its possible mechanism of action.

Singh S.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi), Pushp Vihar, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil and linolenic acid found to possess significant antiinflammatory activity against PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. The other species of Ocimum, viz. O. basilicum and O. americanum also containing linolenic acid in varying proportions, also showed significant inhibition of edema against carrageenan, PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. The fixed oil of O. basiliaum containing maximum percentage of linolenic acid showed higher protection. The results suggests that linolenic acid percent in the fixed oils of different species of Ocimum has the capacity to block both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonate metabolism and could be responsible for the antiinflammatory activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 10356964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

117. Evaluation of the gastric antiulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Holy Basil).

Singh S, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, India.

The fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae) was found to possess significant antiulcer activity against aspirin-, indomethacin-, alcohol-, histamine-, reserpine-, serotonin- and stress-induced ulceration in experimental animal models. Significant inhibition was also observed in gastric secretion and aspirin-induced gastric ulceration in pylorus ligated rats. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory effects of the oil could probably have contributed towards antiulcer activity. O. sanctum fixed oil may be considered to be a drug of natural origin which possesses both anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 10350365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119.Chemopreventive effect of Ocimum sanctum on DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

Karthikeyan K, Ravichandran P, Govindasamy S.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Madras, India.

Ocimum sanctum L., a plant having multi-medicinal properties, has been investigated for its chemopreventive activity against 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. O. sanctum, in the form of fresh leaf paste, aqueous extract and ethanolic extract were topically applied and the extracts were orally administered to buccal pouch mucosa of animals exposed to 0.5% of DMBA. Incidence of papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas were significantly reduced, and increased the survival rate in the topically applied leaf paste and orally administered extracts to animals. Among them, the orally administered aqueous extract showed profound effect than the other two forms. Histopathological observations made on the mucosa confirmed these findings. Further fluorescent spectral studies at 405 nm excitation on the mucosa of control, DMBA and extracts orally administered experimental animals showed a prominent maxima at 430 nm for control, 628 nm for DMBA induced carcinomas while aqueous and ethanolic extracts administered animals showed at 486 nm and 488 nm, respectively. The fluorescent intensity at 630 nm (FI630 nm) was significantly reduced and the ratio of fluorescent intensities at 520 nm and 630 nm (FI520 nm/630 nm) were significantly increased in orally administered extracts compared to DMBA treated animals. These observations suggest that the orally administered extract of O. sanctum may have the ability to prevent the early events of carcinogenesis.

Publication Types: PMID: 10211319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

120.In vivo radioprotection by ocimum flavonoids: survival of mice.

Uma Devi P, Ganasoundari A, Rao BS, Srinivasan KK.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Two flavonoids, orientin and vicenin, isolated from the leaves of the Indian plant Ocimum sanctum were tested for their radioprotective effect in mice. Both compounds provided protection against death from gastrointestinal syndrome as well as bone marrow syndrome when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before whole-body exposure to 11 Gy gamma radiation. The optimum drug dose for protection was 50 microg/kg body weight: An increase in the drug dose did not increase protection. No acute toxicity was observed at doses as high as 100 mg/kg body weight of either compound. Maximum protection was obtained when either compound was injected i.p. 30 min before irradiation. Changing the route of administration or the interval between drug injection (i.p.) and irradiation reduced protection. Drug treatment after irradiation was not very effective. Vicenin was slightly better than orientin in increasing survival at 30 days; protection by vicenin also lasted longer. Dose modification factors (DMFs) for the LD50 were 1.37 for vicenin and 1.30 for orientin. Radical scavenging activity has been demonstrated for both orientin and vicenin, and this appears to be one of the mechanisms of protection by these flavonoids.

Publication Types: PMID: 9973087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

121. A comparative study of radioprotection by Ocimum flavonoids and synthetic aminothiol protectors in the mouse.

Devi PU, Bisht KS, Vinitha M.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

The radioprotective effects of two flavonoids, orientin (Ot) and vicenin (Vc), obtained from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, and the synthetic compounds WR-2721 and MPG (2-mercaptopropionyl glycine) have been compared by examining chromosome aberration in cells of bone marrow in irradiated mice. Healthy adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 micrograms kg-1 body weight of Ot or Vc; 20 mg kg-1 of MPG; 150 mg kg-1 of WR-2721 or double distilled water (DDW). They were exposed to whole body irradiation of 2.0 Gy gamma radiation 30 min later. After 24 h, chromosomal aberrations were studied in the bone marrow of the femur by routine metaphase preparation after colchicine treatment. Radiation (2 Gy) increased the number of aberrant cells from less than 1% in controls to almost 20%. Pre-treatment with all the protective compounds resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of aberrant metaphases as well as in the different types of aberration scored. Vc produced the maximum reduction in percent aberrant cells while MPG was the least effective; Ot and WR-2721 showed an almost similar effect. However, WR-2721 was the most effective against reduction of complex an almost similar effect. However, WR-2721 was the most effective against reduction of complex aberrations, followed by Vc. Neither flavonoids had any systemic toxicity, even at 200 mg kg-1 body weight. Considering the low dose needed for protection and the high margin between the effective and toxic doses, the ocimum flavonoids may be promising for human radiation protection.

Publication Types: PMID: 9771390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

122. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid function in the male mouse.

Panda S, Kar A.

School of Life Sciences, Vigyan Bhawan, Indore, India.

The effects of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on the changes in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and serum cholesterol; in the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the changes in the weight of the sex organs were investigated. While the plant extract at the dose of 0.5 g kg-1 body wt. for 15 days significantly decreased serum T4 concentrations, hepatic LPO and G-6-P activity, the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT were increased by the drug. However, no marked changes were observed in serum T3 level, T3/T4 ratio and in the concentration of serum cholesterol. It appears that Ocimum sanctum leaf extract is antithyroidic as well as antioxidative in nature.

Publication Types: PMID: 9721597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

123. Inhibition by an extract of Ocimum sanctum of DNA-binding activity of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rat hepatocytes in vitro.

Prashar R, Kumar A, Hewer A, Cole KJ, Davis W, Phillips DH.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India.

Ocimum sanctum is a traditional medicinal plant. Previous studies have shown that extracts of O. sanctum inhibit the induction of skin papillomas in mice by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). In the present study, primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were treated with 0-500 microg of O. sanctum extract for 24 h and then with DMBA (10 or 50 microg) for 18 h. Cells were then harvested and their DNA was isolated and analyzed by 32P-postlabelling. A significant reduction in the levels of DMBA-DNA adducts was observed in all cultures pretreated with O. sanctum extract. This effect was more pronounced at the lower dose of DMBA (10 microg). Hepatocytes which were treated with the highest dose of extract (500 microg) showed a maximum reduction of 93% in the mean values of DMBA-DNA adducts. The viability of the cells was not adversely affected by pretreatment with extract. Our findings suggest that O. sanctum leaf extract blocks or suppresses the events associated with chemical carcinogenesis by inhibiting metabolic activation of the carcinogen.

Publication Types:PMID: 9683276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

124. Enhancement of bone marrow radioprotection and reduction of WR-2721 toxicity by Ocimum sanctum.

Ganasoundari A, Devi PU, Rao BS.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

The radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (OE) in combination with WR-2721 (WR) was investigated on mouse bone marrow. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with OE (10 mg/kg on 5 consecutive days), or 100-400 mg/kg WR (single dose) or combination of the two or double-distilled water (DDW) and whole-body exposed to 4.5 Gy gamma-irradiation (RT). Metaphase plates were prepared from femur bone marrow on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 post-treatment and chromosomal aberrations were scored. The maximum number of aberrant cells was observed at 24 h after irradiation in all the groups. However, pretreatment with OE or WR individually resulted in a significant decrease in aberrant cells as well as different types of aberrations. The combination of the two further enhanced this effect; resulting in a 2-fold increase in the protection factor (PF = 6.68) compared to 400 mg/kg WR alone. The percent aberrant cells decreased linear-quadratically with WR dose when given individually, while in the OE + WR pretreatment animals the values showed a linear dose response. Combination of OE with WR doses above 200 mg/kg completely eliminated rings, polyploidy and pulverization of chromosomes. Percent aberrant cells decreased with time in all groups, though the values remained higher than normal even on day 14 in the RT alone as well as those treated with single agent + RT. WR doses above 200 mg/kg before RT resulted in significantly higher frequency of aberrant cells compared to RT and OE + RT groups on day 14, suggesting delayed WR toxicity; but combination of OE with WR brought down these values to normal level, indicating that OE combination, in addition to enhancing WR protection, may also act as a detoxifier. The protective effect of OE and WR is also reflected in the enhancement of bone marrow CFU survival. Both OE and WR possessed significant free radical scavenging activity in vitro. The combination of the two further enhanced this effect, suggesting that the enhanced free radical scavenging activity by combining the two protectors results in the higher bone marrow cell protection. The significant elevation in chromosome protection obtained by combining OE with WR, with reduction in the latter's toxicity at higher doses, suggests that the combination may have promise for radioprotection in humans.

Publication Types: PMID: 9541656 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

125. Some Indian strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) lacking satellite RNA.

Raj SK, Chandra G, Singh BP.

Plant Virus Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Virus strains isolated from Ocimum sanctum and Zinnia elegans were identified as cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strains on the basis of non-persistant aphid transmission, 28 nm particles, 26 kDa coat protein subunits and serological relationships with CMV and chrysanthemum aspermy virus. The strains showed some biological, serological and satellite RNA based differentiation with other CMV strains isolated earlier from chrysanthemum, petunia and tobacco.

PMID: 9475049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126. Evaluation of antioxidant effectiveness of a few herbal plants.

Maulik G, Maulik N, Bhandari V, Kagan VE, Pakrashi S, Das DK.

University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030-1110, USA.

We have screened a number of plants from the Indian soil for potential antioxidant properties out of which fifteen extracts were found to be positive. Leaves/bulk from the plants were crushed and extracted with organic solvents by three different ways. The first group of plants were extracted with CHCL3:CH3OH (2:1), evaporated, partitioned between petroleum ether and methanol (9:1), aqueous methanolic part re-partitioned between methanol:H2O (4:1) and dichloromethane. Methanol was evaporated from the aqueous methanolic part and extracted with n-butanol. The second group of plants were extracted with methanol followed by partitioning between petroleum ether and CH3OH. The rest of the extraction procedure was the same as above. A third extraction procedure was used for Ocimum sanctum which after extraction with CHCL3:CH3OH (2:1), partitioned between CCL4 and CH3OH:H2O (9:1). Aqueous methanolic part was repartitioned between CH3OH:H2O (4:1) and CHCl3 and CHCl3 soluble part was used for the study. Free radical scavenging activities of the plant extracts were examined by chemiluminescence method. Peroxyl radical was generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), superoxide radical (O2-) from xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XO) and hydroxyl radical (OH) from Xanthine/XO/FeCl3/ EDTA. In addition, O2- and OH. scavenging activities were also determined by cytochrome C reduction and deoxyribose oxidation methods, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that these plant extracts possess potent antioxidant activities.

Publication Types: PMID: 9350426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

127. Modification of bone marrow radiosensensitivity by medicinal plant extracts.

Ganasoundari A, Zare SM, Devi PU.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone, and Plumbagin (Pl), a naphthoquinone, from the roots of Withania somnifera and Plumbago rosea, respectively, have been shown to possess growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects on experimental mouse tumours. An aqueous extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OE) was found to protect mice against radiation lethality. Therefore, the radiomodifying effects of the above plant products on the bone marrow of the adult Swiss mouse was studied. Single doses of WA (30 mg kg-1) or Pl (5 mg kg-1) were injected intraperitoneally (ip) and OE (10 mg kg-1) was injected ip once daily for five consecutive days. Administration of extracts was followed by 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Bone marrow stem cell survival was studied by an exogenous spleen colony unit (CFU-S) assay. The effects of WA and Pl were compared with that of cyclophosphamide (CP) and radioprotection by OE was compared with that of WR-2721 (WR). Radiation reduced the CFU-S to less than 50% of normal. WA, CP and Pl significantly enhanced this effect and reduced the CFU-S to almost the same extent (to < 20% of normal), although individually WA and Pl were less cytotoxic than CP. These results indicate that radiosensitization by WA and Pl is not tumour specific. OE significantly increased CFU-S compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone. OE+RT gave a higher stem cell survival (p < 0.05) than that produced by WR+RT. While WR alone had a toxic effect, OE treatment showed no such effect, suggesting that the latter may have an advantage over WR in clinical application.

Publication Types: PMID: 9227253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

128. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of fatty acids of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil.

Singh S, Majumdar DK.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi) Pushp Vihar, New Delhi, India.

Ocimum sanctum fixed oil and linolenic acid were found to possess significant antiinflammatory activity against PGE2, leukotriene and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. Plant lipids like linseed oil and soyabean oil containing linolenic acid when tested along with O. sanctum fixed oil, also showed significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results suggest that linolenic acid present in O. sanctum fixed oil has the capacity to block both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonate metabolism and could be responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of the oil.

Publication Types:PMID: 9315239 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone level.

Sembulingam K, Sembulingam P, Namasivayam A.

Department of Physiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, Porur, Madras.

Ethanol extract of leaves of ocimum sanctum was screened for its antistressor actions against acute and chronic noise stress in albino rats by investigating the plasma corticosterone level in these animals. There was a significant elevation of the corticosterone level in plasma of rats subjected to 30 min noise (100 dB) stress. Chromic exposure (4 hr daily for 30 days) to noise with same intensity reduced the hormonal level significantly. Treatment of animals with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum prevented the changes in plasma level of corticosterone induced by exposure to both acute and chronic noise stress, indicating the antistressor property of the plant against noise.

PMID: 9142558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

130. Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats.

Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Chakrabarti A.

Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.

Publication Types: PMID: 9332177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131. Protection against radiation-induced chromosome damage in mouse bone marrow by Ocimum sanctum.

Ganasoundari A, Devi PU, Rao MN.

Department of Radiobiology, Dr. T.M.A. Pai Research Centre, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

The radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (Ocimum extract, OE) was investigated by taking chromosome aberrations as the end point. Adult Swiss mice were whole-body exposed to 1-6 Gy of gamma radiation with/without pretreatment with 10 mg/kg b.wt. of OE intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days. Radiation was given 30 min after the last injection. Metaphase plates were prepared from femur marrow on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 post-treatment and the frequency of aberrant cells and individual aberrations were scored. OE alone did not have any significant effect on the chromosomes. Maximum percent of aberrant cells was observed at 24 h in all the exposed groups. The percent aberrant cells showed a linear quadratic increase with radiation dose, in both radiation alone (RT) and OE + RT-treated groups. Exchange (dicentrics and rings) and multiple (pulverized and severely damaged cells) aberrations also showed a similar response. However, the slopes of OE + RT was significantly shallower than RT groups (p < 0.05). A dose-modifying factor of 2.63 was obtained taking percent aberrant cells for 2 Gy as the base. Progressive decline in the percent aberrant cells as well as the number of aberrations with time after irradiation was observed in both RT and OE + RT groups. OE treatment resulted in a faster recovery compared to RT alone group. At doses below 3 Gy, OE pretreatment almost completely eliminated the exchange aberrations from the cell population by day 2. Studies on a chemical system demonstrated that OE significantly reduced the generation of hydroxyl radical; a lower dose of OE (1 mg/ml) was more effective than 5 mg/ml and this effect was more pronounced than that produced by DMSO. These results show that OE affords in vivo protection against radiation-induced cytogenetic damage. Free radical scavenging is a likely mechanism of OE protection.

Publication Types: PMID: 9042410 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132. Effect of Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on blood sugar levels, serum lipids and tissue lipids in diabetic rats.

Rai V, Iyer U, Mani UV.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, MS University of Baroda, Gujarat, India.

Tulasi leaf powder was fed at the 1% level in normal and diabetic rats for a period of one month to explore the effect on fasting blood sugar, uronic acid, total amino acids, and the lipid profile in serum and tissue lipids. The results indicated a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar, uronic acid, total amino acids, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids and total lipids. In liver, total cholesterol, triglyceride and total lipids were significantly lowered. Total lipids were significantly reduced in kidney. In heart, a significant fall in total cholesterol and phospholipids was observed. All these observations indicate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Tulasi in diabetic rats.

Publication Types: PMID: 9198110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

133. Chemical and pharmacological studies on fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum.

Singh S, Majumdar DK, Yadav MR.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi) Pushp Vihar, India.

Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of fixed oil of O. sanctum revealed the presence of five fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). The triglyceride fraction of the oil showed higher protection compared to fixed oil against carrageenam-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced writhings in rats and mice, respectively. The pharmacological activity of the fixed oil could be attributed to its triglyceride fraction or the fatty acids.

Publication Types: PMID: 9246913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Holybasil) and its possible mechanism of action.

Singh S, Majumdar DK, Rehan HM.

College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi), New Delhi, India.

The fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Labiatae) was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan- and different other mediator-induced paw edema in rats. Significant inhibitory effect was also observed in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats. It also inhibited arachidonic acid and leukotriene-induced paw edema. The results of anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum sanctum support the dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism as indicated by its activity in inflammation models that are insensitive to selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors. On the basis of the findings it may be inferred that Ocimum sanctum may be a useful anti-inflammatory agent which blocks both the pathways, i.e. cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, or arachidonic acid metabolism.

Publication Types: PMID: 8941864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

135. Randomized placebo-controlled, single blind trial of holy basil leaves in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Agrawal P, Rai V, Singh RB.

Department of Home Science, Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, India.

Experimental studies on albino rats reported that leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum album (holy basil) had hypoglycemic effect. To explore further evidence we studied the effects of treatment with holy basil leaves on fasting and postprandial blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels in humans through randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover single blind trial. Results indicated a significant decrease in fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels during treatment with holy basil leaves compared to during treatment with placebo leaves. Fasting blood glucose fell by 21.0 mg/dl, confidence interval of difference -31.4 - (-)11.2 (p < 0.001), and postprandial blood glucose fell by 15.8 mg/dl, confidence interval -27.0 - (-)5.6 (p < 0.02). The lower values of glucose represented reductions of 17.6% and 7.3% in the levels of fasting and postprandial blood glucose, respectively. Urine glucose levels showed similar trend. Mean total cholesterol levels showed mild reduction during basil treatment period. The findings from this study suggest that basil leaves may be prescribed as adjunct to dietary therapy and drug treatment in mild to moderate NIDDM.

Publication Types: PMID: 8880292 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

136. Minor and trace elemental determination in the Indian herbal and other medicinal preparations.

Samudralwar DL, Garg AN.

Department of Chemistry, Nagpur University, India.

Medicinal plants described in the Indian "Ayurvedic" literature viz. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Gulvel (Tinospora cardifolia), bitter Neem (Azadirachta indica), Kanher (Nerium Andicum), Vekhand (Acorus calamus), and Peacock's feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples and the standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA and IAEA, Vienna were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h, and 10 h with thermal neutrons at a flux of 10(12)-10(13) n cm-2 s-1 in APSARA and CIRUS reactor at BARC, Bombay. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was performed using a 45 cm3 HPGe detector and a 4096 MCA system. Concentrations of 13 elements were determined. Zinc, manganese, and sodium were significantly higher in Tulsi leaves while zinc is higher in Neem leaves. Peacock's feathers were found to be rich in manganese, iron, copper, and zinc. A high concentration of mercury was also found in the peacock's feather ash. The therapeutic significance in restoring ionic balance is discussed.

Publication Types: PMID: 8886311 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

137. In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.

Rai MK.

Department of Botany, Danielson College, Chhindwara, India.

A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%).

PMID: 9676046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

138. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

Damayanti M, Susheela K, Sharma GJ.

Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal, India.

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease.

Publication Types: PMID: 9022263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

139. Modulatory influence of alcoholic extract of Ocimum leaves on carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme activities and reduced glutathione levels in mouse.

Banerjee S, Prashar R, Kumar A, Rao AR.

Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The present study reports the modulatory influence of alcoholic extract from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum on the activities of cytochrome p-450, cytochrome b5, and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzymes in the liver and glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione level in the liver, lung, and stomach of the mouse. Oral treatment with the leaf extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt for 15 days would significantly elevate the activities of cytochrome p-450 (p < 0.05), cytochrome b5 (p < 0.01, p < 0.001), aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (p < 0.05), and glutathione S-transferase (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), all of which are important in the detoxification of carcinogens as well as mutagens. Moreover treatment with 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt of Ocimum extract for 15 days also significantly elevated extrahepatic glutathione-S-transferase (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). The reduced glutathione level was also elevated by treatment with the leaf extract in liver, lung, and stomach tissues (p < 0.01, p < 0.001). Mice fed a diet containing 0.75% butylated hydroxyanisole (positive control) revealed no alteration in the basal hepatic cytochrome p-450 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase level, but hepatic cytochrome b5 and glutathione S-transferase activity in hepatic and extrahepatic organs were elevated in a time-responsive manner (p < 0.05, p < 0.001). The observations suggest further exploitation of the Ocimum leaf extract or its active principle(s) for the chemoprevention of chemical carcinogenesis in different animal model systems.

Publication Types:

PMID: 8710690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

140.Radioprotective effect of leaf extract of Indian medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum.

Devi PU, Ganasoundari A.

Department of Radiobiology, Dr. T.M.A. Pai Research Centre, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Water or aqueous ethanol extract of O. sanctum was given ip, either as a single dose or multiple doses, before a whole-body exposure to 11 Gy(LD100/30) of 60Co gamma radiation in albino mice. The water extract was more effective and less toxic than the aqueous ethanol extract. An optimum ip dose of 50 mg/kg (< 1/100 LD50) of the water extract, at 10 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, gave the maximum survival. Increasing the dose per treatment or the number of treatments did not increase protection. Intraperitoneal administration gave the best protection (70% survival). Other routes (im, iv and po) were less effective and produced 37-47% survival. The optimum dose (ip) gave a dose modifying factor of 1.28. Since the extract may contain a number of chemical compounds, it is not possible to attribute the observed protection to any particular compound at present.

Publication Types: PMID: 7601491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

141. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

Sarkar A, Lavania SC, Pandey DN, Pant MC.

Department of Medicine, S.N. Medical College, Agra.

Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents.

PMID: 7883302 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

142. Chemopreventive action by an extract from Ocimum sanctum on mouse skin papillomagenesis and its enhancement of skin glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble sulfydryl level.

Prashar R, Kumar A, Banerjee S, Rao AR.

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, India.

We report the chemopreventive property of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum (a traditional medicinal plant) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice. A significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, average number of tumors per tumor bearing mice and the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated topically with the leaf extract of O. sanctum at either the peri-initiational, post-initiational stages or continuously at peri- and post-initiational stages of papillomagenesis as compared to the corresponding control group. Topical application of Ocimum leaf extract for 15 days resulted in significant 2-fold elevation of reduced glutathione content in the skin of mice (p < 0.05). Similarly, glutathione S-transferase activity was also observed to be significantly elevated by 25% compared with the control group (p < 0.05) following Ocimum extract treatment.

Publication Types: PMID: 7858289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

143. Hypoglycemic effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

Chattopadhyay RR.

Biometry Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.

Oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves of O. sanctum led to marked lowering of blood sugar level in normal, glucose fed hyperglycemic and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Further the extract potentiated the action of exogenous insulin in normal rats. The activity of the extract was 91.55 and 70.43% of that of tolbutamide in normal and diabetic rats respectively.

Publication Types: PMID: 8112763 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

144. Ocimum sanctum Linn--a study on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion in rats.

Mandal S, Das DN, De K, Ray K, Roy G, Chaudhuri SB, Sahana CC, Chowdhuri MK.

Department of Pharmacology, Burdwan Medical College, West Bengal.

The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucous secretion.

Publication Types: PMID: 8449557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

145. Intervention of adriamycin induced free radical damage.

Balanehru S, Nagarajan B.

Department of Microbiology and Tumor Biochemistry, Cancer Institute, Madras, India.

The cumulative cardiotoxicity of Adriamycin (ADR) is a constraint on its pharmacological use. The generation of drug induced oxygen radicals in heart cells lead to cardiac lipid membrane peroxidation. We studied the free radical scavenging potential of two compounds Oleanolic acid (OA) isolated from Eugenia jumbolana and Ursolic acid (UA) isolated from Ocimum sanctum against ADR induced lipid peroxidation both in liver and heart microsomes in vitro. In our attempt in the management of cardiotoxicity, we have identified OA as a strong protector against ADR induced lipid peroxidation and UA as a mild protector. Protection with OA was 49% and 21% in liver and heart microsomes respectively. On combined treatment, it increased to 69%. UA showed only 13% and 17% protection in liver and heart microsomes. Two methods for the microsome preparation, Calcium aggregation (CA) and Differential centrifugation (DC) were also compared. CA seems to give a better microsomal preparation though the protection was about the same.

Publication Types: PMID: 1482409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

147. Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products.

Aruna K, Sivaramakrishnan VM.

Isotope Division, Cancer Institute, Adyar, Madras, India.

The anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. The effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of Swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) and on the induction of hepatomas in Wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB) were investigated. Among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn) and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) significantly decreased the incidence of both B[a]P-induced neoplasia and 3'MeDAB-induced hepatomas. Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum Linn) significantly inhibited B[a]P-induced neoplasia alone, while the other plant products, asafoetida, kandathipili, turmeric, drumstick leaves, solanum leaves and alternanthera leaves were ineffective. These results suggest that cumin seeds, basil leaves and to a lesser extent poppy seeds, which are all widely used in Indian cooking, may prove to be valuable anticarcinogenic agents.

Publication Types: PMID: 1473788 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

148. Mechanism of anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn, eugenol and Tinospora malabarica in experimental animals.

Sen P, Maiti PC, Puri S, Ray A, Audulov NA, Valdman AV.

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India.

Effects of restraint stress (RS) and its modulation by O. sanctum (Os), eugenol and T. malabarica (Tm) were evaluated on some biochemical and biophysical parameters in rats. RS induced elevations in blood glucose and urea levels, were unaffected by either Os, eugenol or Tm pretreatment. However, both Os and eugenol lowered RS-induced cholesterol levels. RS also caused a generalized increase in enzyme activity and Os, eugenol or Tm effectively lowered the RS-induced elevations in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase. RS also induced (a) increased membrane protein clusterization, (b) increased membrane fluidity and (c) reduced membrane thickness--in RBC membrane, whereas, the effects on the synaptosomal membrane were less marked. The RS-induced changes in RBC membrane dynamics were attenuated/reversed by Os, eugenol or Tm, in a differential manner. These biochemical and membrane changes during Rs and their modulation by the adaptogens are discussed in light of the possible mechanisms of action of these agents, during such aversive stimuli.

Publication Types: PMID: 1459632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

149. Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme of a filarial worm Setaria digitata: some properties and effects of drugs and herbal extracts.

Banu MJ, Nellaiappan K, Dhandayuthapani S.

Department of Zoology, University of Madras, India.

Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and malic enzyme (mME) of a filarial worm Setaria digitata were studied. mMDH exhibited the highest activities in the oxidation and reduction reactions at pH 9.5 and pH 6.2, respectively, while mME did so in the malate decarboxylation reaction at pH 6.8. mME showed no detectable activity on the pyruvate carboxylation direction. The Km values for malate (1.7 mM) and oxaloacetate (0.17 mM) and the ratio of Vmax oxidation: Vmax reduction (2.73) tend to favor the oxaloacetate reduction by mMDH. mME showed a relatively high Km value of 8.3 mM, for malate decarboxylation. A drug, diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C), did not change appreciably the activity of either mMDH or mME, while filarin (a drug of herbal origin) effectively inhibited mMDH. The leaf extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis and Calotropis gigantea and leaf and flower extracts of Azadirachta indica were, however, found to inhibit both mMDH and mME.

Publication Types: PMID: 1291764 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

150. Effect of short term administration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on reproductive behaviour of adult male rats.

Kantak NM, Gogate MG.

Department of Physiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad.

Effect of feeding Tulsi leaves along with the normal diet, on the reproductory behaviour of adult male Wistar rats, was studied. Experimental animals were given Tulsi extract in graded doses of 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg along with the normal diet while control group only had similar normal diet. Each dose was given for 15 days and reproductory behaviour monitored in terms of score, on every alternative day. There was significant decrease in sexual behavioural score, when Tulsi leaves extract dose was increased to 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg.

Publication Types: PMID: 1506071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

151. Protective effect of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid against lipid peroxidation.

Balanehru S, Nagarajan B.

Department of Microbiology & Tumor Biochemistry, Cancer Institute, Madras, India.

In a search for plant products against cancer, the protective effect of two plant products, ursolic acid isolated from Ocimum sanctum and oleanolic acid from Eugenia jumbolana against free radical induced damage was studied. Three different standard systems viz., ascorbic acid, carbon tetrachloride, ADP/Iron were used to induce lipid peroxidation in isolated rat liver microsomes in vitro. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid offered remarkable protection of 90% and 60% respectively. Both the compounds did not induce lipid peroxidation by themselves that improved the therapeutic application.

Publication Types: PMID: 1776961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152. Preliminary psychopharmacological evaluation of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract.

Sakina MR, Dandiya PC, Hamdard ME, Hameed A.

Institute of History of Medicine and Medical Research, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

An ethanol extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum was screened for its effects on the central nervous system. It prolonged the time of lost reflex in mice due to pentobarbital, decreased the recovery time and severity of electroshock- and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions, and decreased apomorphine-induced fighting time and ambulation in "open field" studies. Using a behavioural despair model involving forced swimming in rats and mice, the extract lowered immobility in a manner comparable to imipramine. This action was blocked by haloperidol and sulpiride, indicating a possible action involving dopaminergic neurones. In similar studies, there was a synergistic action when the extract was combined with bromocriptine, a potent D2-receptor agonist.

Publication Types: PMID: 2329804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153. Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba and Ocimum sanctum.

Phadke SA, Kulkarni SD.

Study of in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from the plants T. chebula, E. alba and O. sanctum was carried out by the disk diffusion technique. All showed such activity against human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The activity against Salmonella organisms was shown only by T. chebula; against Shigella organisms by T. chebula and E. alha; but not by O. sanctum. The widest spectrum of antibacterial activity was shown by T. chebula. It was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in between that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of antibacterial activity was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in between that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of antibacterial activity was observed in O. sanctum.

PMID: 2793213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

156. Ocimum sanctum--a preliminary study evaluating its immunoregulatory profile in albino rats.

Godhwani S, Godhwani JL, Vyas DS.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sardar Patel Medical College, Rajasthan, India.

A methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of Ocimum sanctum leaves were investigated for their immunoregulatory profile to antigenic challenge of Salmonella typhosa and sheep erythrocytes by quantifying agglutinating antibodies employing the Widal agglutination and sheep erythrocyte agglutination tests and E-rosette formation in albino rats. The data of the study indicate an immunostimulation of humoral immunologic response as represented by an increase in antibody titre in both the Widal and sheep erythrocyte agglutination tests as well as by the cellular immunologic response represented by E-rosette formation and lymphocytosis. The results of the study indicate an immunostimulant capability for Ocimum sanctum which may be contributory in explaining the adaptogenic action of the plant.

PMID: 3253489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

157. Ocimum sanctum: an experimental study evaluating its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in animals.

Godhwani S, Godhwani JL, Vyas DS.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sardar Patel Medical College, Rajasthan, India.

A methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of Ocimum sanctum inhibited acute as well as chronic inflammation in rats as tested by carrageenan-induced pedal edema and croton oil-induced granuloma and exudate, respectively. In both test procedures, the anti-inflammatory response of 500 mg/kg of methanol extract and aqueous suspension was comparable to the response observed with 300 mg/kg of sodium salicylate. Both the extract and suspension showed analgesic activity in the mouse hotplate procedure and the methanol extract caused an increase in the tail-withdrawal reaction time of a subanalgesic dose of morphine. Both preparations reduced typhoid-paratyphoid A/B vaccine-induced pyrexia. The antipyretic action of the methanol extract and aqueous suspension was weaker and of shorter duration than that of 300 mg/kg sodium salicylate. Oral premedication with the methanol extract and the aqueous suspension delayed castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats.

PMID: 3501819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

Farnsworth NR, Waller DP.

PIP: This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently.

PMID: 12179631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


159. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

Vohora SB, Garg SK, Chaudhury RR.

PIP: The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month.

PMID: 5820437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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